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The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War   By:

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[Illustration: Facsimile of Negro Bill of Sale]

THE AMERICAN INDIAN AS PARTICIPANT IN THE CIVIL WAR

BY ANNIE HELOISE ABEL, Ph.D. Professor of History, Smith College

1919

To My former colleagues and students at Goucher College and in the College Courses for Teachers, Johns Hopkins University this book is affectionately dedicated

CONTENTS

I THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE, OR ELKHORN AND ITS MORE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS 13 II LANE'S BRIGADE AND THE INCEPTION OF THE INDIAN 37 III THE INDIAN REFUGEES IN SOUTHERN KANSAS 79 IV THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FIRST INDIAN EXPEDITION 91 V THE MARCH TO TAHLEQUAH AND THE RETROGRADE MOVEMENT OF THE "WHITE AUXILIARY" 125 VI GENERAL PIKE IN CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL HINDMAN 147 VII ORGANIZATION OF THE ARKANSAS AND RED RIVER SUPERINTENDENCY 171 VIII THE RETIREMENT OF GENERAL PIKE 185 IX THE REMOVAL OF THE REFUGEES TO THE SAC AND FOX AGENCY 203 X NEGOTIATIONS WITH UNION INDIANS 221 XI INDIAN TERRITORY IN 1863, JANUARY TO JUNE INCLUSIVE 243 XII INDIAN TERRITORY IN 1863, JULY TO DECEMBER INCLUSIVE 283 XIII ASPECTS, CHIEFLY MILITARY, 1864 1865 313 APPENDIX 337 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 353 INDEX 369

ILLUSTRATIONS

FACSIMILE OF NEGRO BILL OF SALE 4 SKETCH MAP SHOWING THE MAIN THEATRE OF BORDER WARFARE AND THE LOCATION OF TRIBES WITHIN THE INDIAN COUNTRY 39 PORTRAIT OF COLONEL W.A. PHILLIPS 93 FACSIMILE OF MONTHLY INSPECTION REPORT OF THE SECOND CREEK REGIMENT OF MOUNTED VOLUNTEERS 245 FACSIMILE OF MONTHLY INSPECTION REPORT OF THE FIRST CREEK REGIMENT OF MOUNTED VOLUNTEERS 315

I. THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE, OR ELKHORN, AND ITS MORE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS

The Indian alliance, so assiduously sought by the Southern Confederacy and so laboriously built up, soon revealed itself to be most unstable. Direct and unmistakable signs of its instability appeared in connection with the first real military test to which it was subjected, the Battle of Pea Ridge or Elkhorn, as it is better known in the South, the battle that stands out in the history of the War of Secession as being the most decisive victory to date of the Union forces in the West and as marking the turning point in the political relationship of the State of Missouri with the Confederate government.

In the short time during which, following the removal of General Frémont, General David Hunter was in full command of the Department of the West and it was practically not more than one week he completely reversed the policy of vigorous offensive that had obtained under men, subordinate to his predecessor.[1] In southwest Missouri, he abandoned the advanced position of the Federals and fell back upon Sedalia and Rolla, railway termini. That he did this at the suggestion of President Lincoln[2] and with the tacit approval of General McClellan[3] makes no

[Footnote 1: The Century Company's War Book , vol. i, 314 315.]

[Footnote 2: Official Records , first ser., vol. iii, 553 554. Hereafter, except where otherwise designated, the first series will always be understood.]

[Footnote 3: Ibid., 568.]

difference now, as it made no difference then, in the consideration of the consequences; yet the consequences were, none the less, rather serious. They were such, in fact, as to increase very greatly the confusion on the border and to give the Confederates that chance of recovery which soon made it necessary for their foes to do the work of Nathaniel Lyon all over again... Continue reading book >>




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