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An Essay In Aid Of A Grammar Of Assent   By: (1801-1890)

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An Essay

In Aid Of

A Grammar Of Assent.


John Henry Newman,

Of the Oratory.

Non in dialecticà complacuit Deo salvum facere populum suum.



Burns, Oates, & Co.

17 & 18, Portman Street, and 63, Paternoster Row.



Dedication. Part I. Assent And Apprehension. Chapter I. Modes Of Holding And Apprehending Propositions. § 1. Modes of Holding Propositions. § 2. Modes of apprehending Propositions. Chapter II. Assent Considered As Apprehensive. Chapter III. The Apprehension Of Propositions. Chapter IV. Notional And Real Assent. § 1. Notional Assents. § 2. Real Assents. § 3. Notional and Real Assents Contrasted. Chapter V. Apprehension And Assent In The Matter Of Religion. § 1. Belief in One God. § 2. Belief in the Holy Trinity. § 3. Belief in Dogmatic Theology. Part II. Assent And Inference. Chapter VI. Assent Considered As Unconditional. § 1. Simple Assent. § 2. Complex Assent. Chapter VII. Certitude. § 1. Assent and Certitude Contrasted. § 2. Indefectibility of Certitude. Chapter VIII. Inference. § 1. Formal Inference. § 2. Informal Inference. § 3. Natural Inference. Chapter IX. The Illative Sense. § 1. The Sanction of the Illative Sense. § 2. The Nature of the Illative Sense. § 3. The Range of the Illative Sense. Chapter X. Inference And Assent In The Matter Of Religion. § 1. Natural Religion. § 2. Revealed Religion. Note. Footnotes



Edward Bellasis,

Serjeant At Law,

In Remembrance

Of A Long, Equable, Sunny Friendship;

In Gratitude

For Continual Kindnesses Shown To Me,

For An Unwearied Zeal In My Behalf,

For A Trust In Me Which Has Never Wavered,

And A Prompt, Effectual Succour And Support

In Times Of Special Trial,

From His Affectionate

J. H. N.

February 21, 1870.


Chapter I. Modes Of Holding And Apprehending Propositions.

§ 1. Modes of Holding Propositions.

1. Propositions (consisting of a subject and predicate united by the copula) may take a categorical, conditional, or interrogative form.

(1) An interrogative, when they ask a Question, (e. g. Does Free trade benefit the poorer classes?) and imply the possibility of an affirmative or negative resolution of it.

(2) A conditional, when they express a Conclusion (e. g. Free trade therefore benefits the poorer classes), and both imply, and imply their dependence on, other propositions.

(3) A categorical, when they simply make an Assertion (e. g. Free trade does benefit), and imply the absence of any condition or reservation of any kind, looking neither before nor behind, as resting in themselves and being intrinsically complete.

These three modes of shaping a proposition, distinct as they are from each other, follow each other in natural sequence. A proposition, which starts with being a Question, may become a Conclusion, and then be changed into an Assertion; but it has of course ceased to be a question, so far forth as it has become a conclusion, and has rid itself of its argumentative form that is, has ceased to be a conclusion, so far forth as it has become an assertion. A question has not yet got so far as to be a conclusion, though it is the necessary preliminary of a conclusion; and an assertion has got beyond being a mere conclusion, though it is the natural issue of a conclusion. Their correlation is the measure of their distinction one from another... Continue reading book >>

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