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An Experimental Translocation of the Eastern Timber Wolf   By:

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FOREWORD

The Fish and Wildlife Service is proud to present this bulletin describing an experimental attempt to re establish an endangered species in part of its native range. Two States, a Federal agency, a university, and two private conservation groups pooled their resources to make the project possible. This effort exemplifies the type of cooperation the Department of the Interior believes is imperative in beginning the gigantic task of trying to save and restore the threatened and endangered animals in this country today.

Our pride is bittersweet, however. The experiment was a complete success in providing the information sought: What might happen when a pack of wolves is transplanted to a new area where the native population has been all but exterminated by Man? It was the answer to this question that was disappointing. Nevertheless, experiments are for learning, no matter what the answers may be. We are convinced that the answers provided by this project will ultimately be most helpful in future attempts to restore endangered animals to parts of their native ranges where they can begin again on the road to recovery.

[Illustration: Lynn A. Greenwalt]

DIRECTOR

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Additional Copies Available from

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

REGION 3

Federal Building

Fort Snelling

Twin Cities, Minnesota 55111

AN EXPERIMENTAL TRANSLOCATION OF THE EASTERN TIMBER WOLF

THOMAS F. WEISE Department of Biology Northern Michigan University[1]

WILLIAM L. ROBINSON Department of Biology Northern Michigan University

RICHARD A. HOOK Department of Biology Northern Michigan University

L. DAVID MECH Endangered Wildlife Research Program U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service[2]

[1] Marquette, Michigan 49855

[2] Division of Cooperative Research, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Md. 20810. Mailing address: North Central Forest Experiment Station, Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN. 55101.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD Inside front cover

ABSTRACT Back side of title page

INTRODUCTION 1

THE STUDY AREA 2

METHODS 4

RESULTS 8 Social Structure of the Translocated Wolves 8 Aerial Tracking 10 Movements of the Translocated Wolves 11 Post Release Phase 11 Directional Movement Phase 11 Exploratory Phase 11 Settled Phase 11 Movements of the Remaining Pack Member 11 Movements of Wolf No. 10 12 Feeding Habits 16 Citizen Sightings 17 Habitat Use 19 Failure of Female No. 11 to Whelp 19 Demise of the Translocated Wolves 19

DISCUSSION 21 Effect of Captivity and Human Contact 21 Movements 22 Environmental Influences 22 Possible Homing Tendencies 22 Distances Traveled 23 Home Range Size 25 Selection of a Territory 25 Vulnerability and Mortality 25 Food Habits and Predation 26 An Alternate Approach 26

CONCLUSIONS 26

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 27

LITERATURE CITED 27

ABSTRACT

Two male and two female eastern timber wolves ( Canis lupus lycaon ), live trapped in Minnesota were released in March 1974 near Huron Mountain in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan... Continue reading book >>




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