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Ancient Egypt   By: (1812-1902)

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[Illustration: GREAT HALL OF COLUMNS AT KARNAK (RESTORED.)]

ANCIENT EGYPT

BY

GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A.

CAMDEN PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF TURIN; AUTHOR OF "THE FIVE GREAT MONARCHIES OF THE ANCIENT EASTERN WORLD." ETC., ETC.

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF

ARTHUR GILMAN, M.A. AUTHOR OF "THE STORY OF ROME," ETC.

TENTH EDITION

LONDON T. FISHER UNWIN

PATERNOSTER SQUARE, E.C.

COPYRIGHT BY T. FISHER UNWIN, 1886 (For Great Britain)

TO REGINALD STUART POOLE, KEEPER OF COINS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, AND CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE, IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MUCH HELP AND MUCH PLEASURE DERIVED FROM HIS EGYPTIAN LABOURS.

CONTENTS.

I.

THE LAND OF EGYPT 1 22

General shape of Egypt, 1 Chief divisions: twofold division, 2; threefold division, 3 The Egypt of the maps unreal, 4 Egypt, "the gift of the river," in what sense, 5, 6 The Fayoum, 7 Egyptian speculations concerning the Nile, 7, 8 The Nile not beautiful, 8 Size of Egypt, 9 Fertility, 10 Geographical situation, 11, 12 The Nile, as a means of communication, 12, 13, Phenomena of the inundation, 13, 14 Climate of Egypt. 14 Geology, 15 Flora and Fauna, 16, 17 General monotony, 19 Exceptions, 20 22.

II.

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT 23 45

Origin of the Egyptians, 23 Phenomena of their language and type, 24 Two marked varieties of physique. 25 Two types of character: the melancholic, 25, 27: the gay, 27 29 Character of the Egyptian religion: polytheism, 30, 31 Animal worship, 31 33 Worship of the monarch, 33 Osirid saga, 34, 35 Evil gods, 36 Local cults, 37 Esoteric religion, 38; how reconciled with the popular belief, 39 Conviction of a life after death, 40, 41 Moral code, 41 43 Actual state of morals, 43 Ranks of society, 44, 45.

III.

THE DAWN OF HISTORY 45 64

Early Egyptian myths: the Seb and Thoth legends, 46, 47 The destruction of mankind by Ra, 48 Traditions concerning M'na, or Menes, 48 Site of Memphis, 49 Great Temple of Phthah at Memphis, 50, 51 Names of Memphis, 51 Question of the existence of M'na, 52, 53 Supposed successors of M'na, 54 First historical Egyptian, Sneferu, 55 The Egypt of his time, 56 Hieroglyphics, 57 Tombs, 58 Incipient pyramids, 59, 60 Social condition of the people, 60 Manners, 61 Position of women, 62 64.

IV.

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS 65 94

Difficult to realize the conception of a great pyramid, 65 Egyptian idea of one, 66 Number of pyramids in Egypt: the Principal Three, 67 Description of the "Third Pyramid," 67 71; of the "Second Pyramid," 72; of the "First" or "Great Pyramid," 75 81 The traditional builders, Khufu, Shafra, and Menkaura, 82; the pyramids their tombs, 82 Grandeur of Khufu's conception, 83 Cruelty involved in it, 84, 85 The builders' hopes not realized, 85, 86 Skill displayed in the construction, 86 Magnificence of the architectural effect, 89 Inferiority of the "Third Pyramid," 90 Continuance of the pyramid period, 91 94.

V.

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER, AND THE EARLY THEBAN KINGS 95 119

Shift of the seat of power site of Thebes, 95 Origin of the name of Thebes, 96 Earliest known Theban king, Antef I., 97 His successors, Mentu hotep I. and "Antef the Great," 98 Other Antefs and Mentu hoteps, 98, 99 Sankh ka ra and his fleet, 99, 100 Dynasty of Usurtasens and Amenemhats: spirit of their civilization, 100, 101 Reign of Amenemhat I., 102 His wars and hunting expeditions, 103, 104 Usurtasen I.: his wars, 105 His sculptures and architectural works, 106 His obelisk, 107, 109 Reign of Amenemhat II.: tablet belonging to his time, 109, 110 Usurtasen II. and his conquests, 111, 112.

VI.

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS 113 123

Dangers connected with the inundation of the Nile, twofold, 113 An excessive inundation, 114; a defective one, 115 Sufferings from these causes under Amenemhat III... Continue reading book >>




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