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Applied Physiology Including the Effects of Alcohol and Narcotics   By:

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APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY

Including the Effects of Alcohol and Narcotics

by

FRANK OVERTON, A.M., M.D.

Late House Surgeon to the City Hospital, New York

Primary Grade

New York Cincinnati Chicago American Book Company

Copyright, 1898, 1910, by Frank Overton

OV. PHYSIOL. (PRIM.) E P 42

PREFACE

This primary text book of applied physiology follows a natural order of treatment. In each subject elementary anatomical facts are presented in a manner which impresses function rather than form, and from the form described derives the function. The facts and principles are then applied to everyday life. Anatomy and pure physiology make clear and fix hygienic points, while applied physiology lends interest to the otherwise dry facts of physiology and anatomy. From the great range of the science there are included only those subjects which are directly concerned in the growth and development of children.

The value of a primary book depends largely upon the language used. In bringing the truths within the comprehension of children, the author has made sparing use of the complex sentence. He has made the sentences short and simple in form, and logical in arrangement.

A child grasps new ideas mainly as they appeal directly to the senses. For this reason, physiological demonstrations are indispensable. Subjects for demonstrations are not given, because they cannot be performed by the children; but the teacher should make free use of the series given in the author's advanced physiology.

Cuts and diagrams are inserted where they are needed to explain the text. They are taken from the author's Applied Physiology, Intermediate Grade . Each was chosen, not for artistic effect, but because of its fitness to illustrate a point. Most of the cuts are adapted for reproduction on the blackboard.

The effects of alcohol and other narcotics are treated with special fulness. The subject is given a fair and judicial discussion, and those conclusions are presented which are universally accepted by the medical profession. But while this most important form of intemperance is singled out, it should be remembered that the breaking of any of nature's laws is also a form of intemperance, and that the whole study of applied physiology is to encourage a more healthy and a more noble and self denying mode of life.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

I. CELLS 7

II. OF WHAT CELLS ARE MADE 10

III. DIGESTION OF FOOD IN THE MOUTH 13

IV. DIGESTION OF FOOD IN THE STOMACH 17

V. FOODS 23

VI. TOBACCO 31

VII. FERMENTATION 37

VIII. KINDS OF STRONG DRINK 42

IX. THE BLOOD 49

X. BREATHING, HEAT, AND CLOTHING 59

XI. THE SKIN AND KIDNEYS 75

XII. THE NERVES, SPINAL CORD, AND BRAIN 84

XIII. THE SENSES 100

XIV. BONES AND JOINTS 109

XV. MUSCLES 115

XVI. DISEASE GERMS 123

XVII. PREVENTING SICKNESS 132

INDEX 139

APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY

CHAPTER I

CELLS

Our body is made of many parts. Its head thinks. Its legs carry it, and its arms and hands take hold of things. The leg cannot do the work of the arm, nor the head do the work of the hand; but each part does only its own work.

=1. The simplest animal.= Some animals have parts like a man's; but these parts are fewer. No animal has arms or hands like a man. A fish has little fins in place of legs and arms, while a worm has not even a head, but only a body, and yet it moves... Continue reading book >>




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