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ARCHITECTURE

BY MRS. ARTHUR BELL

AUTHOR OF "THE ELEMENTARY HISTORY OF ART," "MASTERPIECES OF THE GREAT ARTISTS," "REPRESENTATIVE PAINTERS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY," ETC.

[Illustration: logo]

LONDON: T. C. & E. C. JACK

67 LONG ACRE, W.C., AND EDINBURGH

NEW YORK: DODGE PUBLISHING CO.

CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGE

INTRODUCTION: WHAT ARCHITECTURE IS MATERIALS EMPLOYED DEFINITION OF DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE TWO MAIN STYLES, TRABEATED AND ARCUATED v

I. EGYPTIAN, ASIATIC, AND EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 7

II. GREEK ARCHITECTURE 13

III. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 22

IV. EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 31

V. BYZANTINE AND SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE 36

VI. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 45

VII. ANGLO SAXON AND ANGLO NORMAN ARCHITECTURE 52

VIII. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE 60

IX. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN 72

X. RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE 83

XI. RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN 88

INDEX 93

INTRODUCTION

WHAT ARCHITECTURE IS MATERIALS EMPLOYED DEFINITION OF DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE TWO MAIN STYLES, TRABEATED AND ARCUATED

It is only when a building entirely fulfils the purpose for which it is intended and bears the impress of a genuine style that it takes rank as a work of architecture. This definition, exclusive though it at first sight appears, brings within the province of the art every structure which combines with practical utility beauty of design and execution, from the humblest cottage to the most dignified temple or palace. Suitability of material and harmony with its surroundings are among the minor factors that give to a building vitality of character and contribute to its enduring value, a value enhanced by its reflection of the needs and aspirations of those by whom and for whom it was erected.

Wood appears to have been the earliest material used for the building of a home when out of door dwellings took the place of the caves that were the first shelters of primitive man. At Joigny in France there still exist examples of what are supposed to be the most ancient of all such dwellings, namely circular holes, locally known as buvards , in which the trunk of a tree had been fixed, the branches plastered over with clay forming the roof of a simple but rain proof refuge. Huts of wattle and hurdle work dating from prehistoric times have also been preserved, some rising from the ground, others from platforms resting on piles sunk in the beds of lakes. These were in their time superseded by stronger structures, with walls made of squared beams piled up horizontally and fastened together at the corners with wooden pegs; the roof being formed of roughly sawn planks. Out of such primeval houses as these were evolved in the course of centuries the picturesque half timbered cottages of mediƦval Europe and the quaint wooden churches of Norway such as the characteristic one at Hitterdal.

Limestone, granite, and sandstone were used for building at a very remote period in much the same way as wood, large blocks, fresh from the quarry, of all manner of different shapes, being piled up horizontally or stood on edge, no cement being employed, though in certain cases crushed stone was used to fill up the spaces between the blocks. To walls or buildings of which courses of undressed stone were the only materials, the name of Cyclopean has been given because of the erroneous belief that it was originated by the Cyclopes, an imaginary race of giants, supposed to have lived in Thrace, a province of ancient Greece.

Bricks, that is to say, dried blocks of clay, were used at a very early date as a supplement to or substitute for wood and stone for building purposes... Continue reading book >>




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