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The Arian Controversy   By: (1844-1916)

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Epochs of Church History

EDITED BY THE

RIGHT HON. AND RIGHT REV. MANDELL CREIGHTON, D.D.

LATE LORD BISHOP OF LONDON

THE

ARIAN CONTROVERSY.

BY

H.M. GWATKIN, M.A.

DIXIE PROFESSOR OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

SIXTH IMPRESSION

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA 1908

All rights reserved

CONTENTS.

PAGE LIST OF WORKS ix

CHAPTER I. THE BEGINNINGS OF ARIANISM 1

CHAPTER II. THE COUNCIL OF NICÆA 16

CHAPTER III. THE EUSEBIAN REACTION 41

CHAPTER IV. THE COUNCIL OF SARDICA 61

CHAPTER V. THE VICTORY OF ARIANISM 80

CHAPTER VI. THE REIGN OF JULIAN 105

CHAPTER VII. THE RESTORED HOMOEAN SUPREMACY 118

CHAPTER VIII. THE FALL OF ARIANISM 147

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 169

INDEX 173

LIST OF WORKS.

The following works will be found useful by students who are willing to pursue the subject further. Some of special interest or importance are marked with an asterisk.

(A.) ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES AND TRANSLATIONS.

The Church Histories of Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, and (for the Arian side) the fragments of Philostorgius [translations in Bohn's Ecclesiastical Library ].

Eusebius, Vita Constantini and Contra Marcellum Ancyranum .

Athanasius, especially De Incarnatione Verbi Dei , De Decretis Synodi Nicænæ , Orationes contra Arianos , De Synodis , Ad Antiochenos , Ad Afros . Convenient editions of most of these by Professor Bright of Oxford. [Translations of De Incarnatione (Bindley in Christian Classics Series) and of the Orationes and most of the historical works, Newman in Oxford Library of the Fathers .]

Hilary, especially De Synodis . Cyril's Catecheses [translation in Oxford Library of the Fathers ]. Basil, especially Letters . Gregory of Nazianzus, especially Orationes iv. and v. (against Julian). Of minor writers, Phoebadius and Sulpicius Severus (for Council of Ariminum). Fragments of Marcellus, collected by Rettberg (Göttingen, 1794). [German translations of most of these in Thalhofer's Bibliothek der Kirchenväter . English may be hoped for in Schaff's Select Library of the Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers (vol. i. Buffalo, 1886) in 25 vols.]

Heathen writers: Zosimus (bitterly prejudiced); Ammianus Marcellinus for 353 378 (cool and impartial); Julian, especially Cæsares , Fragmentum Epistolæ , and Epp. 7, 25, 26, 42, 43, 49, 52.

(B.) MODERN WRITERS.

1. For general reference:

Gibbon's Decline and Fall (prejudiced against the Christian Empire, but narrative still unrivalled); Schiller Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit , Bd. ii. (church matters a weak point); Ranke, Weltgeschichte , Bd. iii. iv.

General Church Histories of Neander [translation in Bohn's Standard Library ]; Kurtz (zehnte Aufl., 1887); Fisher (New York, 1887); also Hefele, History of the Church Councils [translation published by T. & T. Clark].

Articles in Dictionary of Christian Biography (especially those by Lightfoot, Reynolds, and Wordsworth), and in Herzog's Realencyclopädie (especially Mönchtum by Weingarten).

Weingarten's Zeittafeln z. Kirchengeschichte (3 Aufl. 1888).

(2.) For special use:

The whole period is more or less covered by Kaye, Some Account of the Nicene Council , 1853; Stanley, Eastern Church (best account of the outside of the council); Broglie, L'Église et l'Empire romain ; Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism , 1882.

On Constantine, Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantins , 1853; Keim, Der Uebertritt Constantins , 1862; Brieger, Constantin der Grosse als Religionspolitiker , 1880.

On Julian, English account by Rendall, 1879; German lives by Neander, 1813 [translated 1850]; Mücke, 1867 69, and Rode, 1877... Continue reading book >>




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