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Confucian Analects

Confucian Analects by Confucius
By: (551 BCE-479 BCE)

The Analects, or Lunyu (simplified Chinese: 论语; traditional Chinese: 論語; pinyin: Lún Yǔ; literally "Classified/Ordered Sayings"), also known as the Analects of Confucius, are considered a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held. Written during the Spring and Autumn Period through the Warring States Period (ca. 475 BC - 221 BC), the Analects is the representative work of Confucianism and continues to have a substantial influence on Chinese and East Asian thought and values today.

James Legge (1815-1897) (Chinese: 理雅各; December 20, 1815 – November 29, 1897) was a noted Scottish sinologist, a Scottish Congregationalist, representative of the London Missionary Society in Malacca and Hong Kong (1840–1873), and first professor of Chinese at Oxford University (1876–1897). In association with Max Müller he prepared the monumental Sacred Books of the East series, published in 50 volumes between 1879 and 1891.

First Page:

A note from the digitizer for the Big 5 version

Your computer must have the Big 5 character set (Traditional Chinese) installed to display the Chinese text in this file correctly.

This text preserves the original page breaks. In a few places I have substituted the character forms available in the Big 5 character set for rare or (what are now considered) nonstandard forms used by Legge. Characters not included in the Big 5 character set in any form are described by their constituent elements.

A note for the Unicode version

This Unicode version was made directly from the Big 5 original, and so the same note about substitute characters applies; no attempt has been made to undo the substitutions. However, of course, you will need support for Unicode rather than Big 5 to view this file.


with a translation, critical and exegetical notes, prolegomena, and copious indexes


James Legge



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