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Darwiniana; Essays and Reviews Pertaining to Darwinism   By: (1810-1888)

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First Page:

DARWINIANA

ESSAYS AND REVIEWS PERTAINING TO DARWINISM

BY ASA GRAY FISHER PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY (BOTANY) IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

NEW YORK: 1876.

CONTENTS

DARWINIANA

PREFACE

ARTICLE I

THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION

Views and Definitions of Species How Darwin's differs from that of Agassiz, and from the Common View Variation, its Causes unknown. Darwin's Genealogical Tree Darwin and Agassiz agree in the Capital Facts Embryology Physical Connection of Species compatible with Intellectual Connection How to prove Transmutation. Known Extent of Variation Cause of Likeness unknown Artificial Selection. Reversion Interbreeding Natural Selection. Classification tentative. What Darwin assumes. Argument stated. How Natural Selection works. Where the Argument is weakest. Objections Morphology and Teleology harmonized. Theory not atheistical. Conceivable Modes of Relation of God to Nature

ARTICLE II

DESIGN VERSUS NECESSITY A DISCUSSION

How Design in Nature can be shown Design not inconsistent with Indirect Attainment

ARTICLE III

NATURAL SELECTION NOT INCONSISTENT WITH NATURAL THEOLOGY

PART I. Premonitions of Darwinism. A Proper Subject for Speculation. Summary of Facts and Ideas suggestive of Hypotheses of Derivation

Part II Limitations of Theory conceded by Darwin. What Darwinism explains. Geological Argument strong in the Tertiary Period. Correspondence between Rank and Geological Succession Difficulties in Classification. Nature of Affinity. No Absolute Distinction between Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms. Individuality. Gradation

PART III. Theories contrasted. Early Arguments against Darwinism. Philosophical and Theological Objections Theory may be theistic. Final Cause not excluded. Cause of Variation unknown. Three Views of Efficient Cause compatible with Theism. Agassiz's Objections of a Philosophical Nature. Minor Objections. Conclusion

ARTICLE IV

SPECIES AS TO VARIATION, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, AND SUCCESSION

Alphonse De Candolle's Study of the Oak Genus. Variability of the Species. Antiquity. A Common Origin probable. Dr. Falconer on the Common Origin of Elephants Variation and Natural Selection distinguished. Saporta on the Gradation between the Vegetable Forms of the Cretaceous and the Tertiary. Hypothesis of Derivation more likely to be favored by Botanists than by Zoologists. Views of Agassiz respecting the Origin, Dispersion, Variation, Characteristics, and Successive Creation of Species contrasted with those of De Candolle and others Definition of Species Whether its Essence is in the Likeness or in the Genealogical Connection of the Individuals composing a Species

ARTICLE V

SEQUOIA AND ITS HISTORY: THE RELATIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN TO NORTHEAST ASIAN AND TO TERTIARY VEGETATION

Age and Size of Sequoia. Isolation. Decadence. Related Genera. Former Distribution. Similarity between the Flora of Japan and that of the United States, especially on the Atlantic Side. Former Glaciation as explaining the Present Dispersion of Species. This confirmed by the Arctic Fossil Flora of the Tertiary Period. Tertiary Flora derived from the Preceding Cretaceous. Order and Adaptation in Organic Nature likened to a Flow. Order implies an Ordainer

ARTICLE VI

THE ATTITUDE OF WORKING NATURALISTS TOWARD DARWINISM

General Tendency to Acceptance of the Derivative Hypothesis noted. Lyell, Owen, Alphonse De Candolle, Bentham, Flower, Ailman. Dr. Dawson's "Story of the Earth and Man" examined. Difference between Scientific Men and General Speculators or Amateurs in the Use of Hypotheses

ARTICLE VII

EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY

Writings of Henslow, Hodges, and Le Conte examined. Evolution and Design compatible. The Admission of a System of Nature, with Fixed Laws, concedes in Principle all that the Doctrine of Evolution requires... Continue reading book >>




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