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Development of Gravity Pendulums in the 19th Century   By: (1919-2004)

Development of Gravity Pendulums in the 19th Century by Robert P. Multhauf

First Page:

Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 240

[Illustration]

Smithsonian Press

Museum of History and Technology Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology Papers 34 44 On Science and Technology Smithsonian Institution ยท Washington, D.C. 1966

Publications of the United States National Museum

The scholarly and scientific publications of the United States National Museum include two series, Proceedings of the United States National Museum and United States National Museum Bulletin .

In these series, the Museum publishes original articles and monographs dealing with the collections and work of its constituent museums The Museum of Natural History and the Museum of History and Technology setting forth newly acquired facts in the fields of anthropology, biology, history, geology, and technology. Copies of each publication are distributed to libraries, to cultural and scientific organizations, and to specialists and others interested in the different subjects.

The Proceedings , begun in 1878, are intended for the publication, in separate form, of shorter papers from the Museum of Natural History. These are gathered in volumes, octavo in size, with the publication date of each paper recorded in the table of contents of the volume.

In the Bulletin series, the first of which was issued in 1875, appear longer, separate publications consisting of monographs (occasionally in several parts) and volumes in which are collected works on related subjects. Bulletins are either octavo or quarto in size, depending on the needs of the presentation. Since 1902 papers relating to the botanical collections of the Museum of Natural History have been published in the Bulletin series under the heading Contributions from the United States National Herbarium , and since 1959, in Bulletins titled "Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology," have been gathered shorter papers relating to the collections and research of that Museum.

The present collection of Contributions, Papers 34 44, comprises Bulletin 240. Each of these papers has been previously published in separate form. The year of publication is shown on the last page of each paper.

FRANK A. TAYLOR Director, United States National Museum

Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: Paper 44

DEVELOPMENT OF GRAVITY PENDULUMS IN THE 19TH CENTURY

by

Victor F. Lenzen and Robert P. Multhauf

GALILEO, HUYGENS, AND NEWTON 304

FIGURE OF THE EARTH 306

EARLY TYPES OF PENDULUMS 309

KATER'S CONVERTIBLE AND INVARIABLE PENDULUMS 314

REPSOLD BESSEL REVERSIBLE PENDULUM 320

PEIRCE AND DEFFORGES INVARIABLE, REVERSIBLE PENDULUMS 327

VON STERNECK AND MENDENHALL PENDULUMS 331

ABSOLUTE VALUE OF GRAVITY AT POTSDAM 338

APPLICATION OF GRAVITY SURVEYS 342

SUMMARY 346

VICTOR F. LENZEN AND ROBERT P. MULTHAUF

DEVELOPMENT OF GRAVITY PENDULUMS IN THE 19th CENTURY

[Illustration: Figure 1. A STUDY OF THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH WAS one of the earliest projects of the French Academy of Sciences. In order to test the effect of the earth's rotation on its gravitational force, the Academy in 1672 sent Jean Richer to the equatorial island of Cayenne to compare the rate of a clock which was known to have kept accurate time in Paris. Richer found that the clock lost 2 minutes and 28 seconds at Cayenne, indicating a substantial decrease in the force of gravity on the pendulum. Subsequent pendulum experiments revealed that the period of a pendulum varied not only with the latitude but also regionally, under the influence of topographical features such as mountains... Continue reading book >>




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