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Draining for Profit, and Draining for Health   By: (1833-1898)

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Draining for Profit, and Draining for Health

by George E. Waring

Edition 1, (October 4, 2006)

New York Orange Judd & Company, 245 Broadway.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by ORANGE JUDD & CO.

At the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for this Southern District of New York.

Lovejoy & Son, Electrotypers and Stereotypers. 15 Vandewater street N.Y.

In presenting this book to the public the writer desires to say that, having in view the great importance of thorough work in land draining, and believing it advisable to avoid every thing which might be construed into an approval of half way measures, he has purposely taken the most radical view of the whole subject, and has endeavored to emphasize the necessity for the utmost thoroughness in all draining operations, from the first staking of the lines to the final filling in of the ditches.

That it is sometimes necessary, because of limited means, or limited time, or for other good reasons, to drain partially or imperfectly, or with a view only to temporary results, is freely acknowledged. In these cases the occasion for less completeness in the work must determine the extent to which the directions herein laid down are to be disregarded; but it is believed that, even in such cases, the principles on which those directions are founded should be always borne in mind.

NEWPORT, R.I., 1867.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig. 1 A DRY SOIL. Fig. 2 A WET SOIL. Fig. 3 A DRAINED SOIL. Fig. 4 MAP OF LAND, WITH SWAMPS, ROCKS, SPRINGS AND TREES. INTENDED TO REPRESENT A FIELD OF TEN ACRES BEFORE DRAINING. Fig. 5 MAP WITH 50 FOOT SQUARES, AND CONTOUR LINES. Fig. 6 LEVELLING INSTRUMENT. Fig. 7 LEVELLING ROD. Fig. 8 MAP WITH CONTOUR LINES. Fig. 9 WELL'S CLINOMETER. Fig. 10 STONE PIT TO CONNECT SPRING WITH DRAIN. Fig. 11 STONE AND TILE BASIN FOR SPRING WITH DRAIN. Fig. 12 LINE OF SATURATION BETWEEN DRAINS. Fig. 13 HORSE SHOE TILE. Fig. 14 SOLE TILE. Fig. 15 DOUBLE SOLE TILE. Fig. 16 ROUND TILE AND COLLAR, AND THE SAME AS LAID. Fig. 19 THREE PROFILES OF DRAINS, WITH DIFFERENT INCLINATIONS. Fig. 20 MAP WITH DRAINS AND CONTOUR LINES. Fig. 21 PROFILE OF DRAIN C. Fig. 22 SET OF TOOLS. Fig. 23 OUTLET, SECURED WITH MASONRY AND GRATING. Fig. 24 SILT BASIN, BUILT TO THE SURFACE. Fig. 25 FINISHING SPADE. Fig. 26 FINISHING SCOOP. Fig. 27 BRACING THE SIDES IN SOFT LAND. Fig. 28 MEASURING STAFF. Fig. 29 BONING ROD. Fig. 30 POSITION OF WORKMAN AND USE OF FINISHING SCOOP. Fig. 31 SIGHTING BY THE BONING RODS. Fig. 32 PICK FOR DRESSING AND PREFORATING TILE. Fig. 33 LATERAL DRAIN ENTERING AT TOP. Fig. 34 SECTIONAL VIEW OF JOINT. Fig. 35 SQUARE BRICK SILT BASIN. Fig. 36 SILT BASIN OF VITRIFIED PIPE. Fig. 37 TILE SILT BASIN. Fig. 38 MAUL FOR RAMMING. Fig. 39 BOARD SCRAPER FOR FILLING DITCHES. Fig. 40 CROSS SECTION OF DITCH (FILLED), WITH FURROW AT EACH SIDE. Fig. 41 FOOT PICK. Fig. 42 PUG MILL. Fig. 43 PLATE OF DIES. Fig. 44 CHEAP WOODEN MACHINE. Fig. 45 MANDRIL FOR CARRYING TILES FROM MACHINE. Fig. 46 CLAY KILN. Fig. 47 DYKE AND DITCH. Fig. 48 OLD STYLE HOUSE DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE. Fig. 49 MODERN HOUSE DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I. LAND TO BE DRAINED AND THE REASONS WHY. CHAPTER II. HOW DRAINS ACT, AND HOW THEY AFFECT THE SOIL CHAPTER III. HOW TO GO TO WORK TO LAY OUT A SYSTEM OF DRAINS. CHAPTER IV. HOW TO MAKE THE DRAINS. CHAPTER V. HOW TO TAKE CARE OF DRAINS AND DRAINED LAND. CHAPTER VI. WHAT DRAINING COSTS. CHAPTER VII. "WILL IT PAY?" CHAPTER VIII. HOW TO MAKE DRAINING TILES. CHAPTER IX. THE RECLAIMING OF SALT MARSHES. CHAPTER X. MALARIAL DISEASES. CHAPTER XI. HOUSE DRAINAGE AND TOWN SEWERAGE IN THEIR RELATIONS TO THE PUBLIC HEALTH... Continue reading book >>




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