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The Earliest Electromagnetic Instruments   By:

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Transcriber's Note.

This is Paper 38 from the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 240, comprising Papers 34 44, which will also be available as a complete e book.

The front material, introduction and relevant index entries from the Bulletin are included in each single paper e book.

Corrections are listed at the end of the e book.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

BULLETIN 240

[Illustration]

SMITHSONIAN PRESS

MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY

Papers 34 44

On Science and Technology

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION ยท WASHINGTON, D.C. 1966

Publications of the United States National Museum

The scholarly and scientific publications of the United States National Museum include two series, Proceedings of the United States National Museum and United States National Museum Bulletin .

In these series, the Museum publishes original articles and monographs dealing with the collections and work of its constituent museums The Museum of Natural History and the Museum of History and Technology setting forth newly acquired facts in the fields of anthropology, biology, history, geology, and technology. Copies of each publication are distributed to libraries, to cultural and scientific organizations, and to specialists and others interested in the different subjects.

The Proceedings , begun in 1878, are intended for the publication, in separate form, of shorter papers from the Museum of Natural History. These are gathered in volumes, octavo in size, with the publication date of each paper recorded in the table of contents of the volume.

In the Bulletin series, the first of which was issued in 1875, appear longer, separate publications consisting of monographs (occasionally in several parts) and volumes in which are collected works on related subjects. Bulletins are either octavo or quarto in size, depending on the needs of the presentation. Since 1902 papers relating to the botanical collections of the Museum of Natural History have been published in the Bulletin series under the heading Contributions from the United States National Herbarium , and since 1959, in Bulletins titled "Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology," have been gathered shorter papers relating to the collections and research of that Museum.

The present collection of Contributions, Papers 34 44, comprises Bulletin 240. Each of these papers has been previously published in separate form. The year of publication is shown on the last page of each paper.

FRANK A. TAYLOR Director, United States National Museum

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM

THE MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY:

PAPER 38

THE EARLIEST ELECTROMAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS

Robert A. Chipman

ELECTROSTATIC INSTRUMENTS BEFORE 1800 123

INSTRUMENTING VOLTAIC OR GALVANIC ELECTRICITY, 1800 1820 124

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION, 1800 1820 125

OERSTED'S DISCOVERY 126

BEGINNINGS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INSTRUMENTATION 126

CHRONOLOGY AND PRIORITY 127

ORIGINAL ELECTROMAGNETIC MULTIPLIERS 129

CONCLUSIONS 135

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 136

[Illustration: Figure 1. MODELS OF VARIOUS ELECTROMAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS created by Schweigger, Poggendorf and Cumming in 1821, made for an exhibit in the Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution. (Smithsonian photo 49493.)]

Robert A. Chipman

THE EARLIEST ELECTROMAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS

The history of the early stages of electromagnetic instrumentation is traced here through the men who devised the theories and constructed the instruments.

Despite the many uses made of voltaic cells after Volta's announcement of his "pile" invention in 1800, two decades passed before Oersted discovered the magnetic effects of a voltaic circuit... Continue reading book >>




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