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The Economic Aspect of Geology   By: (1875-1956)

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First Page:

THE ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF GEOLOGY

C. K. LEITH

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

[Illustration]

NEW YORK HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

COPYRIGHT, 1921

BY

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

August, 1923

PRINTED IN THE U. S. A.

CONTENTS

PAGE CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1

SURVEY OF FIELD 1

ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS OF THE SEVERAL BRANCHES OF GEOLOGY AND OF OTHER SCIENCES 3 Mineralogy and petrology 3 Stratigraphy and paleontology 4 Structural geology 5 Physiography 6 Rock alterations or metamorphism 10 Application of other sciences 10

TREATMENT OF THE SUBJECT IN THIS VOLUME 11

CHAPTER II. THE COMMON ELEMENTS, MINERALS, AND ROCKS OF THE EARTH AND THEIR ORIGINS 13

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE LITHOSPHERE 13

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF THE PRINCIPAL MINERALS OF THE LITHOSPHERE 14

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF THE PRINCIPAL ROCKS OF THE LITHOSPHERE 16

WATER (HYDROSPHERE) 18

SOILS AND CLAYS 18

COMPARISON OF LISTS OF MOST ABUNDANT ROCKS AND MINERALS WITH COMMERCIAL ROCKS AND MINERALS 18

THE ORIGIN OF COMMON ROCKS AND MINERALS 18 Igneous processes 19 Igneous after effects 19 Weathering of igneous rocks and veins 20 Sedimentary processes 22 Weathering of sedimentary rocks 23 Consolidation, cementation, and other sub surface alterations of rocks 24 Cementation 24 Dynamic and contact metamorphism 25

THE METAMORPHIC CYCLE AS AN AID IN STUDYING MINERAL DEPOSITS 27

CHAPTER III. SOME SALIENT FEATURES OF THE GEOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF MINERAL DEPOSITS 29

VARIOUS METHODS OF CLASSIFICATION 29

NAMES 31

MINERAL DEPOSITS AS MAGMATIC SEGREGATIONS IN IGNEOUS ROCKS 34

MINERAL DEPOSITS WITHIN AND ADJACENT TO IGNEOUS ROCKS, WHICH WERE FORMED IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE COOLING AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE MAGMAS THROUGH THE AGENCY OF HOT MAGMATIC SOLUTIONS 36 Evidence of igneous source 37 Possible influence of meteoric waters in deposition of ores of this class 41 Zonal arrangement of minerals related to igneous rocks 42 The relation of contact metamorphism to ore bodies of the foregoing class 45

SECONDARY CONCENTRATION IN PLACE OF THE FOREGOING CLASSES OF MINERAL DEPOSITS THROUGH THE AGENCY OF SURFACE SOLUTIONS 46

RESIDUAL MINERAL DEPOSITS FORMED BY THE WEATHERING OF IGNEOUS ROCKS IN PLACE 50

MINERAL DEPOSITS FORMED DIRECTLY AS PLACERS AND SEDIMENTS 51 Mechanically deposited minerals 51 Chemically and organically deposited minerals 52

SEDIMENTARY MINERAL DEPOSITS WHICH HAVE REQUIRED FURTHER CONCENTRATION TO MAKE THEM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE 54

ANAMORPHISM OF MINERAL DEPOSITS 57

CONCLUSION 58

CHAPTER IV... Continue reading book >>




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