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Euripides and His Age   By: (1866-1957)

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E text prepared by Barbara Watson, James Wright, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Canada Team (http://www.pgdpcanada.net) from page images generously made available by Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries (http://www.archive.org/details/toronto)

Note: Images of the original pages are available through Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries. See http://www.archive.org/details/euripideshisage00murruoft

Home University Library of Modern Knowledge

EURIPIDES AND HIS AGE

by

GILBERT MURRAY

London Williams & Norgate

Henry Holt & Co., New York Canada: Wm. Briggs, Toronto India: R. & T. Washbourne, Ltd.

Home University Library of Modern Knowledge

Editors :

HERBERT FISHER, M.A., F.B.A., LL.D. PROF. GILBERT MURRAY, D.LITT., LL.D., F.B.A. PROF. J. ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A., LL.D. PROF. WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, M.A. (Columbia University, U.S.A.)

New York Henry Holt and Company

EURIPIDES AND HIS AGE

BY

GILBERT MURRAY LL.D., D.Litt., F.B.A.

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford

London Williams and Norgate

Printed by The London and Norwich Press Limited London and Norwich

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

I Introductory 7

II Sources for a Life of Euripides: Memories remaining in the Fourth Century: Youth: Athens after the Persian War: the great Sophists 20

III What is a Greek Tragedy? Euripides' early Plays up to 438 B.C., "Alcestis" and "Telephus" 60

IV Beginning of the War: the Plays of Maturity from "Medea" to "Heracles" 81

V Full Expression: the Embittering of the War: Alcibiades and the Demagogues: the "Ion": the "Trojan Women" 107

VI After 415: Euripides' last years in Athens: from "Andromeda" and "Iphigenia" to "Electra" and "Orestes" 142

VII After 408: Macedonia: "Iphigenia in Aulis": "Bacchae" 165

VIII The Art of Euripides: Traditional Form and Living Spirit: the Prologue, the Messenger, the "God from the Machine" 198

IX The Art of Euripides, continued: The Chorus: Conclusion 228

Bibliography 247

Note on the Pronunciation of Names 251

Index 253

EURIPIDES AND HIS AGE

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY

Most of the volumes of this series are occupied with large subjects and subjects commonly recognized as important to great masses of people at the present day. In devoting the present volume to the study of a single writer, remote from us in time and civilization and scarcely known by more than name to many readers of the Library, I am moved by the belief that, quite apart from his disputed greatness as a poet and thinker, apart from his amazing and perhaps unparalleled success as a practical playwright, Euripides is a figure of high significance in the history of humanity and of special interest to our own generation.

Born, according to the legend, in exile and fated to die in exile, Euripides, in whatever light one regards him, is a man of curious and ironic history. As a poet he has lived through the ages in an atmosphere of controversy, generally though by no means always loved by poets and despised by critics. As a thinker he is even to this day treated almost as a personal enemy by scholars of orthodox and conformist minds; defended, idealized and sometimes transformed beyond recognition by various champions of rebellion and the free intellect. The greatest difficulty that I feel in writing about him is to keep in mind without loss of proportion anything like the whole activity of the many sided man... Continue reading book >>




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