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The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals   By: (1809-1882)

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Scanned by Charles Keller with OmniPage Professional OCR software NOTE: The quality of this etext is below my usual standards!!

THE EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS

BY CHARLES DARWIN M.A., F.R.S., ETC.

WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 1899

Authorized Edition.

CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION......................................................Pages 1 26

CHAP. I GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION. The three chief principles stated The first principle Serviceable actions become habitual in association with certain states of the mind, and are performed whether or not of service in each particular case The force of habit Inheritance Associated habitual movements in man Reflex actions Passage of habits into reflex actions Associated habitual movements in the lower animals Concluding remarks ............27 49

CHAP. II GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION continued . The Principle of Antithesis Instances in the dog and cat Origin of the principle Conventional signs The principle of antithesis has not arisen from opposite actions being consciously performed under opposite impulses ..........50 65

CHAP. III GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION concluded .

The principle of the direct action of the excited nervous system on the body, independently of the will and in part of habit Change of colour in the hair Trembling of the muscles Modified secretions Perspiration Expression of extreme pain Of rage, great joy, and terror Contrast between the emotions which cause and do not cause expressive movements Exciting and depressing states of the mind Summary............................................ 66 82

CHAP. IV MEANS OF EXPRESSION. IN ANIMALS. The emission of sounds Vocal sounds Sounds otherwise produced Erection of the dermal appendages, hairs, feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror The drawing back of the ears as a preparation for fighting, and as an expression of anger Erection of the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention 88 114

CHAP. V. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ANIMALS. The Dog, various expressive movements of Cats Horses Ruminants Monkeys, their expression of joy and affection Of pain Anger Astonishment and Terror Pages 115 145

CHAP. VI. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF MAN: SUFFERING AND WEEPING. The screaming and weeping of infants Form of features Age at which weeping commences The effects of habitual restraint on weeping Sobbing Cause of the contraction of the muscles round the eyes during screaming Cause of the secretion of tears 146 175

CHAP. VII. LOW SPIRITS, ANXIETY, GRIEF, DEJECTION, DESPAIR. General effect of grief on the system Obliquity of the eyebrows under suffering On the cause of the obliquity of the eyebrows On the depression of the corners of the mouth 176 195

CHAP. VIII. JOY, HIGH SPIRITS, LOVE, TENDER FEELINGS, DEVOTION. Laughter primarily the expression of joy Ludicrous ideas Movements of the features during laughter Nature of the sound produced The secretion of tears during loud laughter Gradation from loud laughter to gentle smiling High spirits The expression of love Tender feelings Devotion 196 219

CHAP. IX. REFLECTION MEDITATION ILL TEMPER SULKINESS DETERMINATION. The act of frowning Reflection with an effort or with the perception of something difficult or disagreeable Abstracted meditation Ill temper Moroseness Obstinacy Sulkiness and pouting Decision or determination The firm closure of the mouth 220 236

CHAP. X. HATRED AND ANGER.

Hatred Rage, effects of on the system Uncovering of the teeth Rage in the insane Anger and indignation As expressed by the various races of man Sneering and defiance The uncovering of the canine teeth on one side of the face 237 252

CHAP. XI. DISDAIN CONTEMPT DISGUST GUILT PRIDE, ETC. HELPLESSNESS PATIENCE AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION. Contempt, scorn and disdain, variously expressed Derisive Smile Gestures expressive of contempt Disgust Guilt, deceit, pride, etc... Continue reading book >>




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