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Finger Prints   By: (1822-1911)

Book cover

First Page:

FINGER PRINTS

FINGER PRINTS

[Illustration: FINGER PRINTS OF THE AUTHOR]

BY FRANCIS GALTON, F.R.S., ETC.

London MACMILLAN AND CO. AND NEW YORK 1892

All rights reserved

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

PAGE

INTRODUCTION 1

Distinction between creases and ridges 1

Origin of the inquiry 2

Summaries of the subsequent chapters 3 21

Viz. of ii., 3; iii., 4; iv., 5; v., 5; vi., 8; vii., 10; viii., 12; ix., 13; x., 14; xi., 16; xii., 17; xiii., 19;

CHAPTER II

PREVIOUS USE OF FINGER PRINTS 22

Superstition of personal contact 22

Rude hand prints 23

Seals to documents 23

Chinese finger marks 24

The tipsahi of Bengal 24

Nail marks on Assyrian bricks 25

Nail mark on Chinese coins 25

Ridges and cheiromancy China, Japan, and by negroes 26

Modern usage Bewick, Fauld, Tabor, and G. Thompson 26

Their official use by Sir W. J. Herschel 27

CHAPTER III

METHODS OF PRINTING 30

Impression on polished glass or razor 30

The two contrasted methods of printing 31

General remarks on printing from reliefs ink; low relief of ridges; layer of ink; drying due to oxidisation 32 34

Apparatus at my own laboratory slab; roller; benzole (or equivalent); funnel; ink; cards 35 38

Method of its manipulation 38 40

Pocket apparatus 40

Rollers and their manufacture 40

Other parts of the apparatus 41

Folders long serviceable if air be excluded 42

Lithography 43

Water colours and dyes 44

Sir W. Herschel's official instructions 45

Printing as from engraved plates Prof. Ray Lankester; Dr. L. Robinson 45

Methods of Dr. Forgeot 46

Smoke prints mica; adhesive paper, by licking with tongue 47 48

Plumbago; whitening 49

Casts sealing wax; dentist's wax; gutta percha; undried varnish; collodion 49 51

Photographs 51

Prints on glass and mica for lantern 51

Enlargements photographic, by camera lucida, pantagraph 52 53

CHAPTER IV

THE RIDGES AND THEIR USES 54

General character of the ridges 54

Systems on the palm principal ones; small interpolated systems 54 55

Cheiromantic creases their directions; do not strictly correspond with those of ridges 56 57

Ridges on the soles of the feet 57

Pores 57

Development: embryology; subsequent growth; disintegration by age, by injuries 58 59

Evolution 60

Apparent use as regards pressure theoretic; experiment with compass points 60 61

Apparent use as regards rubbing thrill thereby occasioned 62 63

CHAPTER V

PATTERNS: THEIR OUTLINES AND CORES 64

My earlier failures in classifying prints; their causes 64 66

The triangular plots 67

Outlines of patterns eight sets of ten digits given as examples 69 70

Supplies of ridges to pattern 71

Letters that read alike when reversed 71

Magnifying glasses, spectacles, etc... Continue reading book >>




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