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The Foundations of the Origin of Species Two Essays written in 1842 and 1844   By: (1809-1882)

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THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

London: FETTER LANE, E.C.

C. F. CLAY, MANAGER

{Illustration}

Edinburgh: 100, PRINCES STREET

ALSO

London: H. K. LEWIS, 136, GOWER STREET, W.C.

Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO.

Leipzig: F. A. BROCKHAUS

New York: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

Bombay and Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND Co., LTD.

All rights reserved

{Illustration: Charles Darwin from a photograph by Maull & Fox in 1854}

THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

TWO ESSAYS WRITTEN IN 1842 AND 1844

by

CHARLES DARWIN

Edited by his son

FRANCIS DARWIN

Honorary Fellow of Christ's College

Cambridge:

at the University Press

1909

Astronomers might formerly have said that God ordered each planet to move in its particular destiny. In same manner God orders each animal created with certain form in certain country. But how much more simple and sublime power, let attraction act according to certain law, such are inevitable consequences, let animal(s) be created, then by the fixed laws of generation, such will be their successors.

From DARWIN'S Note Book , 1837, p. 101.

TO THE MASTER AND FELLOWS OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE, THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED BY THE EDITOR IN TOKEN OF RESPECT AND GRATITUDE

CONTENTS

ESSAY OF 1842 PAGES

INTRODUCTION xi

PART I

§ i. On variation under domestication, and on the principles of selection 1

§ ii. On variation in a state of nature and on the natural means of selection 4

§ iii. On variation in instincts and other mental attributes 17

PART II

§§ iv. and v. On the evidence from Geology. (The reasons for combining the two sections are given in the Introduction) 22

§ vi. Geographical distribution 29

§ vii. Affinities and classification 35

§ viii. Unity of type in the great classes 38

§ ix. Abortive organs 45

§ x. Recapitulation and conclusion 48

ESSAY OF 1844

PART I

CHAPTER I 57 80

ON THE VARIATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS UNDER DOMESTICATION; AND ON THE PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION.

Variation On the hereditary tendency Causes of Variation On Selection Crossing Breeds Whether our domestic races have descended from one or more wild stocks Limits to Variation in degree and kind In what consists Domestication Summary

CHAPTER II 81 111

ON THE VARIATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN A WILD STATE; ON THE NATURAL MEANS OF SELECTION; AND ON THE COMPARISON OF DOMESTIC RACES AND TRUE SPECIES.

Variation Natural means of Selection Differences between "Races" and "Species": first, in their trueness or variability Difference between "Races" and "Species" in fertility when crossed Causes of Sterility in Hybrids Infertility from causes distinct from hybridisation Points of Resemblance between "Races" and "Species" External characters of Hybrids and Mongrels Summary Limits of Variation

CHAPTER III 112 132

ON THE VARIATION OF INSTINCTS AND OTHER MENTAL ATTRIBUTES UNDER DOMESTICATION AND IN A STATE OF NATURE; ON THE DIFFICULTIES IN THIS SUBJECT; AND ON ANALOGOUS DIFFICULTIES WITH RESPECT TO CORPOREAL STRUCTURES.

Variation of mental attributes under domestication Hereditary habits compared with instincts Variation in the mental attributes of wild animals Principles of Selection applicable to instincts Difficulties in the acquirement of complex instincts by Selection Difficulties in the acquirement by Selection of complex corporeal structures

PART II

ON THE EVIDENCE FAVOURABLE AND OPPOSED TO THE VIEW THAT SPECIES ARE NATURALLY FORMED RACES, DESCENDED FROM COMMON STOCKS... Continue reading book >>




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