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Francis Drake and the California Indians, 1579   By:

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[Illustration: Francis Drake being "crowned" by the natives of New Albion (California) in June, 1579. (From Arnoldus Montanus, Die unbekante neue Welt ; the Dapper issue, Amsterdam, 1673.)]

FRANCIS DRAKE AND THE CALIFORNIA INDIANS, 1579

BY

ROBERT F. HEIZER

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY AND LOS ANGELES 1947

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS IN AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY EDITORS (LOS ANGELES): RALPH L. BEALS, FRANKLIN FEARING, HARRY HOIJER

Volume 42, No. 3, pp. 251 302, plates 18 21, 1 figure in text, 2 illus. Submitted by editors February 27, 1946 Issued March 20, 1947 Price, cloth, $2.00; paper, $1.25

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY AND LOS ANGELES CALIFORNIA

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON, ENGLAND

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

CONTENTS

PAGE

General Background 251

The Trinidad Bay Landfall Theory 255

The Arguments for the Bodega Bay or Drake's Bay Landfall 258

Analysis of the World Encompassed Account 259

Additional Ethnographic Items in the Richard Madox and John Drake Accounts 273

Supposed Indian Traditions of Drake's Visit 276

Recapitulation and Conclusion 277

APPENDIX

I. The Sources 280

II. Excerpt from The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake 283

Plates 293

FRANCIS DRAKE AND THE CALIFORNIA INDIANS, 1579

BY

ROBERT F. HEIZER

GENERAL BACKGROUND

For nearly a century, historians, geographers, and anthropologists have attempted to solve the problem of locating Francis Drake's anchorage in California, but the opinion of no one investigator has been universally accepted. Indeed, it seems likely that the problem will forever remain insoluble in detail, although it may well be reduced to the possibility that one of two bays, either Drake's or Bodega, was the scene of Drake's stay in California.

Historically and ethnographically, Drake's California visit is exceedingly important. He was the first Englishman to see and describe the Indians of Upper California, and the third Caucasian to mention them. The account of the voyage given in The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake (London, 1628) (of uncertain authorship but usually attributed to Francis Fletcher) gives the earliest detailed description of California Indian life, including such particulars of native culture as ceremonial behavior and linguistic terms. This account is reproduced in Appendix II, below.

Historians and geographers have long since stated their reasons and qualifications for presenting certain conclusions about the location of Drake's anchorage, but anthropologists have never insisted vigorously enough that their contribution might be the most decisive of all in solving the problem. If it can be shown that the Indian language and culture described in the accounts of Drake's voyage to California are clearly those of one or another of the coastal Indian tribes, there will then be definite and unequivocal reasons for believing that in 1579 Drake landed on a part of the California coast inhabited by that tribe... Continue reading book >>




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