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German Culture Past and Present   By: (1854-1926)

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Transcriber's Note: Inconsistent hyphenation in the original document has been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected in this text. For a complete list, please see the end of this document.

GERMAN CULTURE PAST AND PRESENT

BY ERNEST BELFORT BAX

AUTHOR OF "JEAN PAUL MARAT," "THE RELIGION OF SOCIALISM," "THE ETHICS OF SOCIALISM," "THE ROOTS OF REALITY," ETC., ETC.

LONDON: GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN, LTD. RUSKIN HOUSE 40 MUSEUM STREET, W.C.

First published in 1915 [ All rights reserved ]

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

INTRODUCTORY: SITUATION IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 7

I. THE REFORMATION MOVEMENT 65

II. POPULAR LITERATURE OF THE TIME 85

III. THE FOLKLORE OF REFORMATION GERMANY 99

IV. THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY GERMAN TOWN 114

V. COUNTRY AND TOWN AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES 122

VI. THE REVOLT OF THE KNIGHTHOOD 154

VII. GENERAL SIGNS OF RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL REVOLT 174

VIII. THE GREAT RISING OF THE PEASANTS AND THE ANABAPTIST MOVEMENT 183

IX. POST MEDIÆVAL GERMANY 229

X. MODERN GERMAN CULTURE 263

PREFACE

The following pages aim at giving a general view of the social and intellectual life of Germany from the end of the mediæval period to modern times. In the earlier portion of the book, the first half of the sixteenth century in Germany is dealt with at much greater length and in greater detail than the later period, a sketch of which forms the subject of the last two chapters. The reason for this is to be found in the fact that while the roots of the later German character and culture are to be sought for in the life of this period, it is comparatively little known to the average educated English reader. In the early fifteenth century, during the Reformation era, German life and culture in its widest sense began to consolidate themselves, and at the same time to take on an originality which differentiated them from the general life and culture of Western Europe as it was during the Middle Ages.

To those who would fully appreciate the later developments, therefore, it is essential thoroughly to understand the details of the social and intellectual history of the time in question. For the later period there are many more works of a generally popular character available for the student and general reader. The chief aim of the sketch given in Chapters IX and X is to bring into sharp relief those events which, in the Author's view, represent more or less crucial stages in the development of modern Germany.

For the earlier portion of the present volume an older work of the Author's, now out of print, entitled German Society at the Close of the Middle Ages , has been largely drawn upon. Reference, as will be seen, has also been made in the course of the present work to two other writings from the same pen which are still to be had for those desirous of fuller information on their respective subjects, viz... Continue reading book >>




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