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The Gracchi Marius and Sulla Epochs of Ancient History   By:

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EPOCHS OF ANCIENT HISTORY

THE GRACCHI MARIUS AND SULLA

BY

A.H. BEESLEY

WITH MAPS

1921

PREFACE

It would be scarcely possible for anyone writing on the period embraced in this volume, to perform his task adequately without making himself familiar with Mr. Long's 'History of the Decline of the Roman Republic' and Mommsen's 'History of Rome.' To do over again (as though the work had never been attempted) what has been done once for all accurately and well, would be mere prudery of punctiliousness. But while I acknowledge my debt of gratitude to both these eminent historians, I must add that for the whole period I have carefully examined the original authorities, often coming to conclusions widely differing from those of Mr. Long. And I venture to hope that from the advantage I have had in being able to compare the works of two writers, one of whom has well nigh exhausted the theories as the other has the facts of the subject, I have succeeded in giving a more consistent and faithful account of the leaders and legislation of the revolutionary era than has hitherto been written. Certainly there could be no more instructive commentary on either history than the study of the other, for each supplements the other and emphasizes its defects. If Mommsen at times pushes conjecture to the verge of invention, as in his account of the junction of the Helvetii and Cimbri, Mr. Long, in his dogged determination never to swerve from facts to inference, falls into the opposite extreme, resorting to somewhat Cyclopean architecture in his detestation of stucco. But my admiration for his history is but slightly qualified by such considerations, and to any student who may be stimulated by the volumes of this series to acquire what would virtually amount to an acquaintance first hand with the narratives of ancient writers, I would say 'Read Mr. Long's history.' To do so is to learn not only knowledge but a lesson in historical study generally. For the writings of a man with whom style is not the first object are as refreshing as his scorn for romancing history is wholesome, and the grave irony with which he records its slips amusing.

A.H.B.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

ANTECEDENTS OF THE REVOLUTION.

Previous history of the Roman orders The Ager Publicus Previous attempts at agrarian legislation Roman slavery The first Slave War The Nobiles, Optimates, Populares, Equites Classification of the component parts of the Roman State State of the transmarine provinces

CHAPTER II.

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS.

Scipio Aemilianus Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus His agrarian proposals Wisdom of them Grievances of the possessors Octavius thwarts Gracchus Conduct of Gracchus defended His other intended reforms He stands again for the tribunate His motives His murder

CHAPTER III.

CAIUS GRACCHUS.

Blossius spared The law of T. Gracchus carried out Explanation of Italian opposition to it Attitude of Scipio Aemilianus His murder Quaestorship of Caius Gracchus The Alien Act of Pennus Flaccus proposes to give the Socii the franchise Revolt and extirpation of Fregellae Tribunate of Caius Gracchus Compared to Tiberius His aims His Corn Law defended His Lex Judiciaria His law concerning the taxation of Asia His conciliation of the equites His colonies He proposes to give the franchise to the Italians Other projects Machinations of the nobles against him M. Livius Drusus outbids him Stands again for the tribunate, but is rejected His murder Some of his laws remain in force The Maria Lex Reactionary legislation of the Senate The Lex Thoria All offices confined to a close circle

CHAPTER IV.

THE JUGURTHINE WAR.

Legacy of Attalus Aristonicus usurps his kingdom Settlement of Asia Jugurtha murders Hiempsal and attacks Adherbal His intrigues at Rome and the infamy of M. Aemilius Scaurus and the other Roman nobles Three commissions bribed by Jugurtha Adherbal murdered Rome declares war and Jugurtha bribes the Roman generals, Bestia and Scaurus Memmius denounces them at Rome Jugurtha summoned to Rome, where he murders Massiva He defeats Aulus Albinos Metellus sent against him Jugurtha defeated on the Muthul Keeps up a guerilla warfare Marius stands for the consulship, and succeeds Metellus Bocchus betrays Jugurtha to Sulla Settlement of Numidia

CHAPTER V... Continue reading book >>




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