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A Guide for the Study of Animals   By:

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Transcriber's notes: Obvious typographical errors have been corrected, but otherwise the author's spelling has been preserved.

A GUIDE FOR THE STUDY OF ANIMALS

BY A COMMITTEE FROM THE BIOLOGY ROUND TABLE OF THE CHICAGO HIGH SCHOOLS

WORRALLO WHITNEY, Chairman BOWEN HIGH SCHOOL

FREDERIC C. LUCAS ENGLEWOOD HIGH SCHOOL

HAROLD B. SHINN SCHURZ HIGH SCHOOL

MABEL E. SMALLWOOD LANE TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL

D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO

Copyright, 1911, By D. C. Heath & Co. 1 E 3

PREFACE

The following guide to the study of animals is intended for pupils in secondary schools. It was prepared by the authors at the request of the Biology Round Table, an association composed of the teachers of Biology in the Chicago High Schools, to whom the authors wish to take this opportunity of expressing their appreciation of the many helpful suggestions and criticisms of the manuscript.

The time has passed when a high school course in zoölogy consists simply of a somewhat simplified edition of a similar course in college. All teachers now recognize that the motivization of any course should be its adaptability to the needs of the student, and that zoölogy must be taught from the standpoint of the student rather than that of the subject. In preparing this guide, the authors have tried to keep these points in mind.

The matter of presentation, the order of topics, and the choice of material has been much discussed, but the trend of opinion has finally set in toward an ecological rather than a type study of animals; that there should be in the case of young students a brief study of rather a large number of animals to bring out some general biological law, rather than an exhaustive study of a very few types. It is further recognized that the use of a reference library is absolutely essential in connection with and to supplement the laboratory work, as there are some topics beyond the ability of the young student for original investigation as well as impossible in the amount of time usually allotted to the subject in our crowded curricula. Of great importance is the economic side of zoölogy, especially its bearing upon the applied sciences of medicine, sanitation, household science, and agriculture, and this phase has received special attention in this guide.

The desirability of field work has always been recognized, but the special conditions under which schools must work are so variable as to make any set directions for field work of little value, and so they have in most cases been omitted in this work. Each teacher can easily give such special direction for collecting material and study in the field as the locality of the school and the time available for it shall determine.

Since zoölogy will probably be the pupil's first laboratory science, the authors have preceded the more formal portion of the manual with a series of short exercises on familiar and easily obtained animals in order to introduce the pupil to the laboratory method and to stimulate his interest, training him at the outset to be constantly on the outlook for specimens and to show him how much may be learned from common things right around him, if he will only use his eyes. We have also begun the more formal portion of the guide with insects, since in the fall they are easily collected and may be studied alive. They illustrate, moreover, the principles of classification and method of using keys and other means of finding out the names of animals. This would seem to be pedagogically sound, for some recent experiments with pupils show that the first question that comes into a child's mind upon seeing a new or strange specimen is "What is it?"

A larger portion of the guide is given to the chordates than is usually the case. The authors also believe that this is correct and in accord with the natural interest of the pupil. It will serve to connect his zoölogy more closely with his daily experiences.

There is material enough provided to allow the teacher a chance to select that best adapted to his purposes or conditions as well as to provide for those schools that give more than one year to zoölogy... Continue reading book >>




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