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Handbook of Universal Literature From the Best and Latest Authorities   By: (1815-1891)

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HANDBOOK OF UNIVERSAL LITERATURE FROM THE BEST AND LATEST AUTHORITIES

BY ANNE C. LYNCH BOTTA

PREFATORY NOTE TO THE REVISED EDITION.

Since the first publication of this work in 1860, many new names have appeared in modern literature. Japan, hitherto almost unknown to Europeans, has taken her place among the nations with a literature of her own, and the researches and discoveries of scholars in various parts of the world have thrown much light on the literatures of antiquity. To keep pace with this advance, a new edition of the work has been called for. Prefixed is a very brief summary of an important and exhaustive History of the Alphabet recently published.

PREFACE.

This work was begun many years ago, as a literary exercise, to meet the personal requirements of the writer, which were such as most persons experience on leaving school and "completing their education," as the phrase is. The world of literature lies before them, but where to begin, what course of study to pursue, in order best to comprehend it, are the problems which present themselves to the bewildered questioner, who finds himself in a position not unlike that of a traveler suddenly set down in an unknown country, without guide book or map. The most natural course under such circumstances would be to begin at the beginning, and take a rapid survey of the entire field of literature, arriving at its details through this general view. But as this could be accomplished only by subjecting each individual to a severe and protracted course of systematic study, the idea was conceived of obviating this necessity to some extent by embodying the results of such a course in the form of the following work, which, after being long laid aside, is now at length completed.

In conformity with this design, standard books have been condensed, with no alterations except such as were required to give unity to the whole work; and in some instances a few additions have been made. Where standard works have not been found, the sketches have been made from the best sources of information, and submitted to the criticism of able scholars.

The literatures of different nations are so related, and have so influenced each other, that it is only by a survey of all that any single literature, or even any great literary work, can be fully comprehended, as the various groups and figures of a historical picture must be viewed as a whole, before they can assume their true place and proportions.

A.C.L.B.

CONTENTS.

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

INTRODUCTION.

THE ALPHABET. 1. The Origin of Letters. 2. The Phoenician Alphabet and Inscriptions. 3. The Greek Alphabet. Its Three Epochs. 4. The Mediaeval Scripts. The Irish. The Anglo Saxon. The Roman. The Gothic. The Runic. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES

CHINESE LITERATURE.

1. Chinese Literature. 2. The Language. 3. The Writing. 4. The Five Classics and Four Books. 5. Chinese Religion and Philosophy. Lao tsé. Confucius. Meng tsé or Mencius. 6. Buddhism. 7. Social Constitution of China. 8. Invention of Printing. 9. Science, History, and Geography. Encyclopaedias. 10. Poetry. 11. Dramatic Literature and Fiction. 12. Education in China.

JAPANESE LITERATURE.

1. The Language. 2. The Religion. 3. The Literature. Influence of Women. 4. History. 5. The Drama and Poetry. 6. Geography. Newspapers. Novels. Medical Science. 7. Position of Woman.

SANSKRIT LITERATURE.

1. The Language. 2. The Social Constitution of India. Brahmanism. 3. Characteristics of the Literature and its Divisions. 4. The Vedas and other Sacred Books. 5. Sanskrit Poetry; Epic; the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Lyric Poetry. Didactic Poetry; the Hitopadesa. Dramatic Poetry. 6. History and Science. 7. Philosophy. 8. Buddhism. 9. Moral Philosophy. The Code of Manu. 10. Modern Literatures of India. 11. Education. The Brahmo Somaj.

BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN LITERATURE.

1. The Accadians and Babylonians. 2. The Cuneiform Letters. 3. Babylonian and Assyrian Remains... Continue reading book >>




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