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Heath's Modern Language Series: El trovador   By: (1813-1884)

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[Illustration: ZARAGOZA]

Heath's Modern Language Series

EL TROVADOR

POR

ANTONIO GARCÍA GUTIÉRREZ

EDITED WITH NOTES AND VOCABULARY

BY

H. H. VAUGHAN, PH. D.

YALE UNIVERSITY

D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY D. C. HEATH & CO.

Printed in U. S. A.

INTRODUCTION

Antonio García Gutiérrez was born in Chiclina, a small town in Andalusia, July 5, 1813. His father wished him to become a doctor, but his own tendency towards poetry was so strong that he soon gave up all idea of a medical career and went to Madrid to seek his fortune. Here he wrote El Trovador , which was promptly rejected by the dramatic managers. After this disappointment he enlisted as a volunteer against the Carlists, and was in the army when his play was finally produced. Its success was instantaneous and overwhelming, and enabled the author to leave the army and give all his time to his chosen occupation. Among his other works may be cited Simón Bocanegra , Venganza Catalana , and Juan Lorenzo . These plays were not as enthusiastically received as El Trovador , and Gutiérrez regarded the public as unjust to him. In 1844 he went to Havana, and thence to Mérida de Yucatán; returning to Spain after five years' absence. He died August 26, 1884.

El Trovador is undoubtedly Gutiérrez' masterpiece. Interest in the play is quickly aroused, and well sustained by the rapidity of the action. Gutiérrez has not kept the classic unities of time and place, but he has kept the one important unity, that of action; since, although our interest may at times be divided between the protagonists of the drama and a less important character, we never lose interest in the former.

The characters, although well drawn, are not strong. Manrique is a selfish and ambitious man, who well deserves his fate. Nuño is unscrupulous and weak, but the weakest character of all is that of Leonor, who, knowing her duty, has neither strength nor will to accomplish it. Azucena is really the most interesting character in the play. From her first sad notes of "Bramando está el pueblo indómito" to her last despairing cry of "Ya estás vengada" we do not for a minute lose sight of the mortal conflict in her soul between the vengeance which she has sworn her mother and her love for Manrique.

The verse form of the drama is worthy of note. In general, scenes in which subordinates or common people appear are in prose, while those between nobles are in verse. When the action is of ordinary pitch, this verse is very simple; but when the action reaches a high pitch, the verse form becomes complicated. Examples of this are to be seen in Act III, Scene V, and Act IV, Scenes V and VI.

El Trovador was given operatic form by the great Italian composer Giuseppi Verdi, and under its Italian title, Il Trovatore , is well known throughout the world.

As great difference exists in the usage of the Spanish punctuation marks at the present day, it has been thought advisable in this edition to adopt in some cases what might be called mixed punctuation, that is, when there is a question which is also an exclamation, attention is called to the fact by the use of the interrogation point before and the exclamation point after the phrase or sentence.

The editor wishes to extend his thanks to Professor J. D. M Ford and Professor C. H. Grandgent of Harvard, Professor A. Le Duc and Mr. F. D. Schnacke of the University of Kansas, and Professor C. P. Wagner of the University of Michigan, who have rendered valuable assistance in the preparation of this edition.

H. H. V.

ANN ARBOR, Sept. 14, 1907 .

EL TROVADOR

DRAMA CABALLERESCO EN CINCO JORNADAS EN PROSA Y VERSO

PERSONAJES

DON NUÑO DE ARTAL, Conde de Luna[1]

DON MANRIQUE (El Trovador)

DON GUILLÉN DE SESÉ

DON LOPE DE URREA

DOÑA LEONOR DE SESÉ

DOÑA JIMENA

AZUCENA

GUZMÁN, criado del Conde de Luna

JIMENO, idem

FERRANDO, idem

RUIZ, criado de Don Manrique

UN SOLDADO

Soldados, sacerdotes y religiosas

Aragón [2] Siglo XV

EL TROVADOR

JORNADA PRIMERA

EL DUELO

Zaragoza:[3] sala corta[4] en el palacio de la Aljafería[5]

ESCENA PRIMERA

GUZMÁN, JIMENO, y FERRANDO, sentados

JIMENO... Continue reading book >>




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