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Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 2   By: (1862-1931)

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HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM

AN HISTORICAL SKETCH

BY

SIR CHARLES ELIOT

In three volumes

VOLUME II

ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL LTD

Broadway House, 68 74 Carter Lane,

London, E.C.4.

First published 1921 Reprinted 1954 Reprinted 1957 Reprinted 1962

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY

LUND HUMPHRIES LONDON BRADFORD

CONTENTS

BOOK IV

THE MAHAYANA

CHAPTER

XVI. MAIN FEATURES OF THE MAHAYANA

XVII. BODHISATTVAS

XVIII. THE BUDDHAS or MAHAYANISM

XIX. MAHAYANIST METAPHYSICS

XX. MAHAYANIST SCRIPTURES

XXI. CHRONOLOGY OF THE MAHAYANA

XXII. FROM KANISHKA TO VASUBANDHU

XXIII. INDIAN BUDDHISM AS SEEN BY THE CHINESE PILGRIMS

XXIV. DECADENCE OF BUDDHISM IN INDIA

BOOK V

HINDUISM

XXV. SIVA AND VISHNU

XXVI. FEATURES OF HINDUISM: RITUAL, CASTE, SECT, FAITH

XXVII. THE EVOLUTION OF HINDUISM. BHÂGAVATAS AND PÂSUPATAS

XXVIII. SANKARA. SIVAISM IN SOUTHERN INDIA. KASHMIR. LlNGÂYATS

XXIX. VISHNUISM IN SOUTH INDIA

XXX. LATER VISHNUISM IN NORTH INDIA

XXXI. AMALGAMATION OF HINDUISM AND ISLAM. KABIR AND THE SIKHS

XXXII. SÂKTISM

XXXIII. HINDU PHILOSOPHY

BOOK IV

THE MAHAYANA

CHAPTER XVI

MAIN FEATURES OF THE MAHAYANA

The obscurest period in the history of Buddhism is that which follows the reign of Asoka, but the enquirer cannot grope for long in these dark ages without stumbling upon the word Mahayana. This is the name given to a movement which in its various phases may be regarded as a philosophical school, a sect and a church, and though it is not always easy to define its relationship to other schools and sects it certainly became a prominent aspect of Buddhism in India about the beginning of our era besides achieving enduring triumphs in the Far East. The word[1] signifies Great Vehicle or Carriage, that is a means of conveyance to salvation, and is contrasted with Hinayana, the Little Vehicle, a name bestowed on the more conservative party though not willingly accepted by them. The simplest description of the two Vehicles is that given by the Chinese traveller I Ching (635 713 A.D.) who saw them both as living realities in India. He says[2] "Those who worship Bodhisattvas and read Mahayana Sutras are called Mahayanists, while those who do not do this are called Hinayanists." In other words, the Mahayanists have scriptures of their own, not included in the Hinayanist Canon and adore superhuman beings in the stage of existence immediately below Buddhahood and practically differing little from Indian deities. Many characteristics could be added to I Ching's description but they might not prove universally true of the Mahayana nor entirely absent from the Hinayana, for however divergent the two Vehicles may have become when separated geographically, for instance in Ceylon and Japan, it is clear that when they were in contact, as in India and China, the distinction was not always sharp. But in general the Mahayana was more popular, not in the sense of being simpler, for parts of its teaching were exceedingly abstruse, but in the sense of striving to invent or include doctrines agreeable to the masses. It was less monastic than the older Buddhism, and more emotional; warmer in charity, more personal in devotion, more ornate in art, literature and ritual, more disposed to evolution and development, whereas the Hinayana was conservative and rigid, secluded in its cloisters and open to the plausible if unjust accusation of selfishness... Continue reading book >>


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