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A History of China   By: (1909-1989)

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[Transcriber's Note: The following text contains numerous non English words containing diacritical marks not contained in the ASCII character set. Characters accented by those marks, and the corresponding text representations are as follows (where x represents the character being accented). All such symbols in this text above the character being accented:

breve (u shaped symbol): [)x] caron (v shaped symbol): [vx] macron (straight line): [=x] acute (égu) accent: ['x]

Additionally, the author has spelled certain words inconsistently. Those have been adjusted to be consistent where possible. Examples of such adjustments are as follows:

From To Northwestern North western Southwards Southward Programme Program re introduced reintroduced practise practice Lotos Lotus Ju Chên Juchên cooperate co operate life time lifetime man power manpower favor favour etc.

In general such changes are made to be consistent with the predominate usage in the text, or if there was not a predominate spelling, to the more modern.]

A HISTORY OF CHINA

by

WOLFRAM EBERHARD

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

THE EARLIEST TIMES

Chapter I: PREHISTORY

1 Sources for the earliest history 2 The Peking Man 3 The Palaeolithic Age 4 The Neolithic Age 5 The eight principal prehistoric cultures 6 The Yang shao culture 7 The Lung shan culture 8 The first petty States in Shansi

Chapter II: THE SHANG DYNASTY ( c . 1600 1028 B.C.)

1 Period, origin, material culture 2 Writing and Religion 3 Transition to feudalism

ANTIQUITY

Chapter III: THE CHOU DYNASTY ( c . 1028 257 B.C.)

1 Cultural origin of the Chou and end of the Shang dynasty 2 Feudalism in the new empire 3 Fusion of Chou and Shang 4 Limitation of the imperial power 5 Changes in the relative strength of the feudal states 6 Confucius 7 Lao Tz[)u]

Chapter IV: THE CONTENDING STATES (481 256 B.C.): DISSOLUTION OF THE FEUDAL SYSTEM

1 Social and military changes 2 Economic changes 3 Cultural changes

Chapter V: THE CH'IN DYNASTY (256 207 B.C.)

1 Towards the unitary State 2 Centralization in every field 3 Frontier Defence. Internal collapse

THE MIDDLE AGES

Chapter VI: THE HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C. A.D. 220)

1 Development of the gentry state 2 Situation of the Hsiung nu empire; its relation to the Han empire. Incorporation of South China 3 Brief feudal reaction. Consolidation of the gentry 4 Turkestan policy. End of the Hsiung nu empire 5 Impoverishment. Cliques. End of the Dynasty 6 The pseudo socialistic dictatorship. Revolt of the "Red Eyebrows" 7 Reaction and Restoration: the Later Han dynasty 8 Hsiung nu policy 9 Economic situation. Rebellion of the "Yellow Turbans". Collapse of the Han dynasty 10 Literature and Art

Chapter VII: THE EPOCH OF THE FIRST DIVISION OF CHINA (A.D. 220 580)

(A) The three kingdoms (A.D. 220 265) 1 Social, intellectual, and economic problems during the period of the first division 2 Status of the two southern Kingdoms 3 The northern State of Wei

(B) The Western Chin dynasty (265 317) 1 Internal situation in the Chin empire 2 Effect on the frontier peoples 3 Struggles for the throne 4 Migration of Chinese 5 Victory of the Huns. The Hun Han dynasty (later renamed the Earlier Chao dynasty)

(C) The alien empires in North China, down to the Toba (A.D. 317 385) 1 The Later Chao dynasty in eastern North China (Hun; 329 352) 2 Earlier Yen dynasty in the north east (proto Mongol; 352 370), and the Earlier Ch'in dynasty in all north China (Tibetan; 351 394) 3 The fragmentation of north China 4 Sociological analysis of the two great alien empires 5 Sociological analysis of the petty States 6 Spread of Buddhism

(D) The Toba empire in North China (A... Continue reading book >>




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