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The History of Rome, Book III From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States   By: (1817-1903)

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THE HISTORY OF ROME, BOOK III

From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States

by

THEODOR MOMMSEN

Translated with the Sanction of the Author

By

William Purdie Dickson, D.D., LL.D. Professor of Divinity in the University of Glasgow

A New Edition Revised Throughout and Embodying Recent Additions

Preparer's Note

This work contains many literal citations of and references to foreign words, sounds, and alphabetic symbols drawn from many languages, including Gothic and Phoenician, but chiefly Latin and Greek. This English Gutenberg edition, constrained to the characters of 7 bit ASCII code, adopts the following orthographic conventions:

1) Except for Greek, all literally cited non English words that do not refer to texts cited as academic references, words that in the source manuscript appear italicized, are rendered with a single preceding, and a single following dash; thus, xxxx .

2) Greek words, first transliterated into Roman alphabetic equivalents, are rendered with a preceding and a following double dash; thus, xxxx . Note that in some cases the root word itself is a compound form such as xxx xxxx, and is rendered as xxx xxx

3) Simple unideographic references to vocalic sounds, single letters, or alphabeic dipthongs; and prefixes, suffixes, and syllabic references are represented by a single preceding dash; thus, x, or xxx.

4) Ideographic references, referring to signs of representation rather than to content, are represented as "id:xxxx" . "id:" stands for "ideograph", and indicates that the reader should form a picture based on the following "xxxx"; which may be a single symbol, a word, or an attempt at a picture composed of ASCII characters. For example, "id:GAMMA gamma" indicates an uppercase Greek gamma form followed by the form in lowercase. Some such exotic parsing as this is necessary to explain alphabetic development because a single symbol may have been used for a number of sounds in a number of languages, or even for a number of sounds in the same language at different times. Thus, " id:GAMMA gamma" might very well refer to a Phoenician construct that in appearance resembles the form that eventually stabilized as an uppercase Greek "gamma" juxtaposed to one of lowercase. Also, a construct such as "id:E" indicates a symbol that with ASCII resembles most closely a Roman uppercase "E", but, in fact, is actually drawn more crudely.

5) Dr. Mommsen has given his dates in terms of Roman usage, A.U.C.; that is, from the founding of Rome, conventionally taken to be 753 B. C. The preparer of this document, has appended to the end of each volume a table of conversion between the two systems.

CONTENTS

BOOK III: From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States

CHAPTER

I. Carthage

II. The War between Rome and Carthage Concerning Sicily

III. The Extension of Italy to Its Natural Boundaries

IV. Hamilcar and Hannibal

V. The War under Hannibal to the Battle of Cannae

VI. The War under Hannibal from Cannae to Zama

VII. The West from the Peace of Hannibal to the Close of the Third Period

VIII. The Eastern States and the Second Macedonian War

IX. The War with Antiochus of Asia

X. The Third Macedonian War

XI. The Government and the Governed

XII. The Management of Land and of Capital

XIII. Faith and Manners

XIV. Literature and Art

BOOK THIRD

From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States

Arduum res gestas scribere.

Sallust.

Chapter I

Carthage

The Phoenicians

The Semitic stock occupied a place amidst, and yet aloof from, the nations of the ancient classical world. The true centre of the former lay in the east, that of the latter in the region of the Mediterranean; and, however wars and migrations may have altered the line of demarcation and thrown the races across each other, a deep sense of diversity has always severed, and still severs, the Indo Germanic peoples from the Syrian, Israelite, and Arabic nations... Continue reading book >>




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