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How to Teach   By: (1877-1916)

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HOW TO TEACH

BY GEORGE DRAYTON STRAYER AND NAOMI NORSWORTHY

February, 1917.

PREFACE

The art of teaching is based primarily upon the science of psychology. In this book the authors have sought to make clear the principles of psychology which are involved in teaching, and to show definitely their application in the work of the classroom. The book has been written in language as free from technical terms as is possible.

In a discussion of the methods of teaching it is necessary to consider the ends or aims involved, as well as the process. The authors have, on this account, included a chapter on the work of the teacher, in which is discussed the aims of education. The success or failure of the work of a teacher is determined by the changes which are brought to pass in the children who are being taught. This book, therefore, includes a chapter on the measurement of the achievements of children. Throughout the book the discussion of the art of teaching is always modified by an acceptance upon the part of the writers of the social purpose of education. The treatment of each topic will be found to be based upon investigations and researches in the fields of psychology and education which involve the measurement of the achievements of children and of adults under varying conditions. Wherever possible, the relation between the principle of teaching laid down and the scientific inquiry upon which it is based is indicated.

Any careful study of the mental life and development of children reveals at the same time the unity and the diversity of the process involved. For the sake of definiteness and clearness, the authors have differentiated between types of mental activity and the corresponding types of classroom exercises. They have, at the same time, sought to make clear the interdependence of the various aspects of teaching method and the unity involved in mental development.

GEORGE DRAYTON STRAYER. NAOMI NORSWORTHY. NOVEMBER 15, 1916.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. THE WORK OF THE TEACHER

II. ORIGINAL NATURE, THE CAPITAL WITH WHICH TEACHERS WORK

III. ATTENTION AND INTEREST IN TEACHING

IV. THE FORMATION OF HABITS

V. HOW TO MEMORIZE

VI. THE TEACHER'S USE OF THE IMAGINATION

VII. HOW THINKING MAY BE STIMULATED

VIII. APPRECIATION, AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN EDUCATION

IX. THE MEANING OF PLAY IN EDUCATION

X. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES FOR THE TEACHER

XI. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL SOCIAL CONDUCT

XII. TRANSFER OF TRAINING

XIII. TYPES OF CLASSROOM EXERCISES

XIV. HOW TO STUDY

XV. MEASURING THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CHILDREN

I. THE WORK OF THE TEACHER

Education is a group enterprise. We establish schools in which we seek to develop whatever capacities or abilities the individual may possess in order that he may become intelligently active for the common good. Schools do not exist primarily for the individual, but, rather, for the group of which he is a member. Individual growth and development are significant in terms of their meaning for the welfare of the whole group. We believe that the greatest opportunity for the individual, as well as his greatest satisfaction, are secured only when he works with others for the common welfare. In the discussions which follow we are concerned not simply with the individual's development, but also with the necessity for inhibitions. There are traits or activities which develop normally, but which are from the social point of view undesirable. It is quite as much the work of the teacher to know how to provide for the inhibition of the type of activity which is socially undesirable, or how to substitute for such reactions other forms of expression which are worthy, as it is to stimulate those types of activity which promise a contribution to the common good. It is assumed that the aim of education can be expressed most satisfactorily in terms of social efficiency... Continue reading book >>




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