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Introduction to the History of Religions Handbooks on the History of Religions, Volume IV   By: (1836-1919)

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= Transcriber's note: Bold characters are surrounded by "" sign.

HANDBOOKS ON THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

EDITED BY

MORRIS JASTROW, JR., PH.D.

Late Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Pennsylvania

VOLUME IV

LONDON: HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Handbooks on the History of Religions

INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

BY CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY LATE PROFESSOR IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

CAMBRIDGE HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1924

COPYRIGHT, 1913

BY CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Third Impression

PRINTED AT THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S.A.

PREFACE

The object of this volume is to describe the principal customs and ideas that underlie all public religion; the details are selected from a large mass of material, which is increasing in bulk year by year. References to the higher religions are introduced for the purpose of illustrating lines of progress.

The analytic table of contents and the index are meant to supplement each other, the one giving the outline of the discussion, the other giving the more important particulars; the two together will facilitate the consultation of the book. In the selected list of works of reference the titles are arranged, as far as possible, in chronological order, so as to indicate in a general way the progress of investigation in the subjects mentioned.

My thanks are due to the publishers for the care they have taken in the printing of the volume, and to their proofreaders, particularly to the chief proofreader, for not a few helpful suggestions.

C. H. T.

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

CONTENTS

(The Arabic figures in the chapter summaries refer to paragraphs)

PAGE

CHAPTER I. NATURE OF RELIGION 1

Science and religion coeval, 1; Man's sense of dependence on mysterious Powers, 2; Early man's feeling toward them of a mixed nature, 3; mainly selfish, 4; Prominence of fear, 6; Conception of natural law, 7; Sense of an extrahuman Something, 9; Universality of religion, 10; Its development parallel to that of social organization, 12; Unitary character of human life, 14; External religion, 15; Internal religion, 16.

CHAPTER II. THE SOUL 10

NATURE OF THE SOUL. Universal belief in an interior something, 18; its basis, 19; from observation of breath, 21; of shadow, 22; of blood, 23; Its form a sublimated double of the corporeal man, 24; or of an animal, 25; The seat of the soul, 26; Localization of qualities, 27; Consequences of the soul's leaving the body, 29; The hidden soul, 31.

ORIGIN OF THE SOUL. Not investigated by savages, 32; Creation of man, 33; Theories of birth, 34; Divine origin of the soul, 36; Mysteriousness of death, 38.

POLYPSYCHISM. Early views of the number and functions of souls, 39; Civilized views, 43.

FUTURE OF THE SOUL. Belief in its death, 46; This belief transient, 51 53; Dwelling place of the surviving soul in human beings, beasts, plants, or inanimate objects, 55 59; or near its earthly abode, 60 63; or in some remote place in earth, sea, or sky, 64 66; or in an underground world, 67 69; Occupations of the dead, 70; Retribution in the Underworld, 71; Nonmoral distinctions, 72 75; Moral retribution, savage, 76 78; Civilized, 79 80; Local separation of the good from the bad, 81; Reward and punishment, Hindu, 82; Egyptian, 83; Greek, 84; Jewish and Christian, 85, 86; Purgatory, 87; Resurrection, 88 90... Continue reading book >>




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