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Island Life Or the Phenomena and Causes of Insular Faunas and Floras   By: (1823-1913)

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

FRONTISPIECE

[Illustration]

ISLAND LIFE

OR

THE PHENOMENA AND CAUSES OF

INSULAR FAUNAS AND FLORAS

INCLUDING A REVISION AND ATTEMPTED SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF

GEOLOGICAL CLIMATES

BY

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE

AUTHOR OF "THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO," "THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS," "DARWINISM," ETC.

SECOND AND REVISED EDITION

London

MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND NEW YORK

1895

The Right of Translation and Reproduction is Reserved

RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BUNGAY.

First Edition printed 1880 (Med. 8vo). Second Edition 1892 (Extra cr. 8vo). Reprinted 1895.

TO

SIR JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER,

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.S., ETC., ETC.

WHO, MORE THAN ANY OTHER WRITER,

HAS ADVANCED OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL

DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS, AND ESPECIALLY

OF INSULAR FLORAS,

I Dedicate this Volume;

ON A KINDRED SUBJECT,

AS A TOKEN OF ADMIRATION AND REGARD.

{vi}

CORRECTIONS IN PRESENT ISSUE.

The first issue of this Edition being exhausted, the opportunity is taken of making a few corrections, the most important of which are here stated:

Page 163. Statement modified as to supposed glaciation of South Africa.

Pages 174 and 338. Many geologists now hold that there was no great submergence during the glacial epoch. The passages referring to it have therefore been re written.

Page 182. Colonel Fielden's explanation of the occurrence of large trees on shores and in recent drift in high latitudes, is now added.

" 272. A species of Carex peculiar to Bermuda is now given.

" 356. Geomalacus maculosus , as a peculiar British species, is now omitted.

Verbal alterations have also been made at pages 41, 105, 356, and 360.

{vii}

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

This edition has been carefully revised throughout, and owing to the great increase to our knowledge of the Natural History of some of the islands during the last twelve years considerable additions or alterations have been required. The more important of these changes are the following:

Chapter VII. The account of the migrations of animals and plants during and since the Glacial Epoch, has been modified to accord with newer information.

Chapters VIII and IX. The discussion of the causes of Glacial Epochs and Mild Arctic Climates has been somewhat modified in view of the late Dr. Croll's remarks, and the argument rendered clearer.

Chapter XIII. Several additions to the Fauna of the Galapagos have been noted.

Chapter XV. Considerable additions have been made to this chapter embodying the recent discoveries of birds and insects new to the Sandwich Islands, while a much fuller account has been given of its highly peculiar and very interesting flora.

Chapter XVI. Important additions and corrections have been made in the lists of peculiar British animals and plants embodying the most recent information.

Chapter XVII. Very large additions have been made to the mammalia and birds of Borneo, and full lists of the peculiar species are given. {viii}

Chapter XVIII. A more accurate account is given of the birds of Japan.

Chapter XIX. The recent additions to the mammals and birds of Madagascar are embodied in this chapter, and a fuller sketch is given of the rich and peculiar flora of the island.

Chapter XXI. and XXII. Some important additions have been made to these chapters owing to more accurate information as to the depth of the sea around New Zealand, and to the discovery of abundant remains of fossil plants of the tertiary and cretaceous periods both in New Zealand and Australia.

In the body of the work I have in each case acknowledged the valuable information given me by naturalists of eminence in their various departments, and I return my best thanks to all who have so kindly assisted me... Continue reading book >>




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