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The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela   By:

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THE ITINERARY OF BENJAMIN OF TUDELA

CRITICAL TEXT, TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY BY MARCUS NATHAN ADLER, M.A.

PHILIPP FELDHEIM, INC THE HOUSE OF THE JEWISH BOOK NEW YORK

FIRST EDITION: LONDON 1907

published by PHILIPP FELDHEIM, Inc. 96 East Broadway New York, N.Y.10002

PRINTED IN JERUSALEM ISRAEL BY S. MONSON

DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF MORITZ STEINSCHNEIDER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Map showing Benjamin's route ... to face title page

INTRODUCTION

I. Islam in the Middle Ages

II. The Object of Benjamin's Journey

III. Bibliography ... xiii

THE ITINERARY

Translation of Hebrew Introduction

EUROPE .

Saragossa, Barcelona, Narbonne

Beziers, Montpellier, Lunel

Posquières, Bourg de St. Gilles, Arles, Marseilles

Genoa, Pisa, Lucca

Rome.

Naples, Sorrento, Salerno

Amalfi, Benevento, Melfi, Ascoli, Trani, Taranto, Brindisi

Corfu, Arta, Patras, Lepanto, Crissa, Corinth, Thebes

Wallachia, Armylo, Vissena, Salonica, Abydos.

Constantinople

Rhaedestus, Gallipoli, Chios, Samos, Rhodes

ASIA .

Cyprus, Curicus, Malmistras, Antioch

Antioch, Ladikiya, Gebela, the Hashishim

Kadmus, Tarabulus (Tripolis), Gubail (Byblus)

Beirut, Sidon, the Druses, Tyre

Acre, Haifa, Carmel.

Caesarea, Ludd, Samaria, Nablous.

The Samaritans

Jerusalem

Bethlehem, Hebron

Beit Jibrin, Shiloh, Ramah

Gibeah, Nob, Ramleh, Jaffa

Askelon, Jezreel, Sepphoris, Tiberias

Meron, Kedesh Naphtali, Banias

Damascus

Galid, Salchah

Baalbec, Tadmor, Emesa, Hatnath

Sheizar, Aleppo, Kalat Jabar, Rakka

Harr[=a]n, Ras el Ain, Geziret Ibn Omar

Mosul

Rahbah, Karkisiya, El Anbar

Hadara, Okbara

Bagdad

Gazigan, Babylon

Hillah, Tower of Babel, Kaphri

Sepulchre of Ezekiel

Kotsonath, Kefar Al Keram, Kufa, Sura

Shafjathib, El Anbar, Hillah

Kheibar, Teima, Tilmas and Tanai in Arabia

Basra, Khuzistan, Shushan

Sepulchre of Daniel

Rudbar, Nihawand, Mulahid

Amadia, History of David Alroy

Hamadan, Tabaristan

Ispahan, Shiraz, Ghaznah

Samarkand, Tibet, Naisabur

Expedition of Sinjar against the Ghuz

Khuzistan, Island of Kish

Katifa, Khulam (Quilon), India

Ibrig

China, Sea of Nikpa

Al Gingaleh, Zebid, Aden

AFRICA .

Abyssinia and Nubia, Egypt

Gana, Desert of Sahara, Fayum, Heluan

Cairo

Alexandria

Damietta, Sunbat, Mount Sinai, Tur Sinai, Tanis

EUROPE .

Island of Sicily, Messina, Palermo, Italy

Germany

Bohemia, Slavonia

Russia, France, Paris

ENGLISH INDEX

HEBREW TEXT, with prefatory note ....... [Hebrew] List of emendations of Text ........ [Hebrew] HEBREW INDEX ........................... [Hebrew]

INTRODUCTION

I. ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela throws a flashlight upon one of the most interesting stages in the development of nations.

The history of the civilized world from the downfall of the Roman Empire to the present day may be summarized as the struggle between Cross and Crescent. This struggle is characterized by a persistent ebb and flow. Mohammed in 622 A.D. transformed, as if by magic, a cluster of Bedouin tribes into a warlike people. An Arabian Empire was formed, which reached from the Ebro to the Indus. Its further advance was stemmed in the year 732, just a hundred years after Mohammed's death, by Charles Martel, in the seven days' battle of Tours.

The progress of the culture of the Arabs was as rapid as had been that of their arms. Great cities such as Cairo and Bagdad were built. Commerce and manufactures flourished. The Jews, who enjoyed protection under the benign rule of the Caliphs, transmitted to the Arabs the learning and science of the Greeks. Schools and universities arose in all parts of the Empire. The dark age of Christendom proved to be the golden age of literature for Jew and Arab... Continue reading book >>




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