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Landmarks in the History of Early Christianity   By: (1872-1946)

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First Page:

LANDMARKS

IN THE HISTORY OF

EARLY CHRISTIANITY

BY

KIRSOPP LAKE, D.D.

WINN PROFESSOR OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

1920

COPYRIGHT

TO

H. R.

{vii}

PREFACE

The following chapters are the lectures given in the spring of 1919 on the Haskell Foundation of Oberlin College. They have been somewhat expanded in the course of preparation for the press, but have not been materially changed.

At the time of the delivery of these lectures I was busy with the chapter on "Primitive Christianity" in the Prolegomena to Acts , and was glad of the opportunity to re state some of the conclusions reached in that book in a less technical form and with more attention to their bearing on some of the larger questions of religion and thought, such as the Teaching of Jesus, the Hope of Immortality, and the Development of Christology. I did not hesitate to make use of one or two paragraphs from the larger book, and I think that my friend, Mr. C. G. Montefiore, will forgive me for having borrowed two beautiful stories from his chapter in it.

I am greatly indebted to the Faculty of Oberlin {viii} College not only for the privilege of lecturing to them, but also for the hospitality extended to me during a very pleasant week and for the beginning of new and delightful friendships.

KIRSOPP LAKE.

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., April 1920.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

GALILEE

PAGE

Introduction The history of Christianity as a series of syntheses The Jewish world The Kingdom of God Repentance The teaching of Jesus as compared with his Jewish contemporaries 1

CHAPTER II

JERUSALEM

The Synoptic Problem and Acts Inspiration Communism Messianic doctrine The Christ The Son of Man The Son of God . . . . . 36

CHAPTER III

ANTIOCH

The spread of Christianity Damascus The Hellenist missionaries Paul's visit to Jerusalem The source criticism of Acts The traditions of Jerusalem and Antioch . . . . . . . 57

CHAPTER IV

CORINTH

Christianity as a Graeco Oriental cult Salvation The reasons for the victory of Christianity Jesus as an historic person The personality of Jesus The Fatherhood of God Baptism Immortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

{x}

CHAPTER V

ROME AND EPHESUS

Paul's contribution Adoptionism Roman documents Romans Hebrews 1 Peter 1 Clement Hermas Baptism and repentance Pre existent Christology The later Epistles The Fourth Gospel The doctrine of the Logos Justin Martyr Origen Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

APPENDIX

The Interpretation of The Shepherd of Hermas . By F. S. Mackenzie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

ADDITIONAL NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

{1}

I

GALILEE

At first sight the historian of religions appears to be faced by a number of clearly distinguished entities, to each of which he feels justified in giving the name of a separate religion; but on further consideration it becomes obvious that each one of these entities has been in a condition of flux throughout its history. Each began as a combination or synthesis of older forms of thought with comparatively little new in its composition; each ended by disintegrating into many elements, of which the worst disappeared, while the best were taken up into new life in some new religion. The movement was more marked at some times than at others, and the differentiation of the various religions depends chiefly on the recognition of these moments of more rapid change. But the process never really stopped; from beginning to end new elements were constantly absorbed and old elements dropped. For religion lives through the death of religions.

Nothing illustrates this so well as the history of Christianity, for no religion is so well known... Continue reading book >>




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