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Life in the Medieval University   By: (1874-1936)

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First Page:

[Transcriber's note: Obvious printer's errors have been corrected, all other inconsistencies are as in the original. Author's spelling has been maintained.]

The Cambridge Manuals of Science and Literature

LIFE IN THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS London: FETTER LANE, E.C. 4 C. F. CLAY, Manager

[Illustration: Arms]

New York: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. Toronto: J. M. DENT & SONS, Ltd. Tokyo: THE MARUZEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA

All rights reserved

[Illustration: The Student's Progress (From Gregor Reisch's Margarita philosophica , Edition of 1504, Strassburg)]

LIFE IN THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY

BY

ROBERT S. RAIT, M.A. FELLOW AND TUTOR OF NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD

Cambridge: at the University Press 1918

First Edition, 1912 Reprinted 1918

With the exception of the coat of arms at the foot, the design on the title page is a reproduction of one used by the earliest known Cambridge printer, John Siberch, 1521.

NOTE ON THE FRONTISPIECE

In this picture the schoolboy is seen arriving with his satchel and being presented with a hornbook by Nicostrata, the Latin muse Carmentis, who changed the Greek alphabet into the Latin. She admits him by the key of congruitas to the House of Wisdom ("Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars," Proverbs ix. 1). In the lowest story he begins his course in Donatus under a Bachelor of Arts armed with the birch; in the next he is promoted to Priscian. Then follow the other subjects of the Trivium and the Quadrivium each subject being represented by its chief exponent logic by Aristotle, arithmetic by Boethius, geometry by Euclid, etc. Ptolemy, the philosopher, who represents astronomy, is confused with the kings of the same name. Pliny and Seneca represent the more advanced study of physical and of moral science respectively, and the edifice is crowned by Theology, the long and arduous course for which followed that of the Arts. Its representative in a medieval treatise is naturally Peter Lombard.

NOTE

I wish to express my obligations to many recent writers on University history, and to the editors of University Statutes and other records, from which my illustrations of medieval student life have been derived. I owe special gratitude to Dr Hastings Rashdall, Fellow of New College and Canon of Hereford, my indebtedness to whose great work, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages , is apparent throughout the following pages. Dr Rashdall has been good enough to read my proof sheets, and to make valuable criticisms and suggestions, and the Master of Emmanuel has rendered me a similar service.

R. S. R. 23rd January 1912.

CONTENTS

Chapter I INTRODUCTORY

Chaucer and the Medieval Student The Great Period of University Founding The words "Universitas," "Collegium," "Studium Generale" Bologna Growth of Studia Generalia Paris, Oxford, Cambridge Definition of "Universitas"..... 1

Chapter II LIFE IN THE STUDENT UNIVERSITIES

Student Guilds at Bologna "Nations" The College of Doctors Relations with the City Position of an English Law Student at Bologna, and his relations to his Nation and his Universitas The Office of Rector Powers of the University over Citizens The Degradation of the Bologna Masters Examinations The Doctorate Regulations Padua Limitations of the Rector's Powers at Florence Spanish Universities Married Dons... Continue reading book >>




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