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Marine Protozoa from Woods Hole Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 21:415-468, 1901   By: (1869-1943)

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Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the U. S. Fish Commission, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.



GARY N. GALKINS, Department of Zoology, Columbia University.

Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 21:415 468, 1901

Comparatively little has been done in this country upon marine Protozoa. A few observations have been made by Kellicott, Stokes, and Peck, but these have not been at all complete. With the exception of Miss Stevens's excellent description of species of Lichnophora I am aware of no single papers on individual forms. Peck ('93 and '95) clearly stated the economic position of marine Protozoa as sources of food, and I need not add to his arguments. It is of interest to know the actual species of various groups in any locality and to compare them with European forms. The present contribution is only the beginning of a series upon the marine Protozoa at Woods Hole, and the species here enumerated are those which were found with the algæ along the edge of the floating wharf in front of the Fish Commission building and within a space of about 20 feet. Many of them were observed in the water and algæ taken fresh from the sea; others were found only after the water had been allowed to stand for a few days in the laboratory. The tow net was not used, the free surface Protozoa were not studied, nor was the dredge called into play. Both of these means of collecting promise excellent results, and at some future time I hope to take advantage of them.

My observations cover a period of two months, from the 1st of July to the 1st of September. During that time I was able to study and describe 72 species representing 55 genera, all from the limited space mentioned above. In addition to these there are a few genera and species upon which I have insufficient notes, and these I shall reserve until opportunity comes to study them further.

I take this opportunity to express my thanks to Dr. Hugh M. Smith for many favors shown me while at Woods Hole.

In dealing with these marine forms from the systematic standpoint, two courses are open to the investigator. He may make numerous new species based upon minor differences in structure, or he may extend previous descriptions until they are elastic enough to cover the variations. The great majority of marine protozoa have been described from European waters, and the descriptions are usually not elastic enough to embrace the forms found at Woods Hole. I have chosen, however, to hold to the conservative plan of systematic work, and to make as few new species as possible, extending the older descriptions to include the new forms.

The different classes of Protozoa, and orders within the classes, are distributed more or less in zones. Thus the Infusoria, including the Ciliata and the Suctoria, are usually littoral in their habitat, living upon the shore dwelling, or attached, water plants and upon the animals frequenting them. It is to be expected, therefore, that in forms here considered there should be a preponderance of Infusoria. Flagellated forms are also found in similar localities, but on the Surface of the sea as well; hence the number described in these pages is probably only a small proportion of the total number of Mastigophora in this region. The Sarcodina, including the Foraminifera and the Radiolaria, are typically deep sea forms and would not be represented by many types in the restricted locality examined at Woods Hole. Two species, Gromia lagenoides and Truncatulina lobatula , alone represent the great order of Foraminifera, while the still larger group of Radiolaria is not represented at all.

The Protozoa described are distributed among the different orders as follows:

Class SARCODINA. Subclass RHIZOPODA. Order AMOEBIDA. 1. Amoeba guttula Duj 2. Amoeba sp. 3. Trichosphærium sieboldi Schn. Order RETICULARIIDA. Suborder IMPERFORINA. 4. Gromia lagenoides Gruber... Continue reading book >>

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