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The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 2 Amiel to Atrauli   By:

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First Page:

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

Transcriber's note: In the pronunciation guides [=e] signifies "e macron"; [)e] "e breve"; [a:] "a with diaeresis below"; [.a] "a with dot above"; [n.] "n with dot below"; and so forth.

THE

NEW . GRESHAM

ENCYCLOPEDIA

VOLUME . I . PART . 2

[Illustration]

The GRESHAM . PUBLISHING COMPANY . Limited

66 CHANDOS STREET . STRAND LONDON W.C.2. 1922

LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS

VOLUME I PART 2

PLATES

Page

ANATOMY (Human Skeleton and Muscles) 153

ARCHÆOLOGY (Antiquities of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages) 220

ARCHITECTURE 224

MAPS IN COLOUR

ASIA 274

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

The method of marking pronunciations here employed is either (1) by marking the syllable on which the accent falls, or (2) by a simple system of transliteration, to which the following is the Key:

VOWELS

[=a], as in f a te, or in b a re.

ä, as in a lms, Fr. â me, Ger. B a hn = á of Indian names.

[.a], the same sound short or medium, as in Fr. b a l, Ger. M a nn.

a, as in f a t.

[a:], as in f a ll.

a , obscure, as in rur a l, similar to u in b u t, [.e] in h e r: common in Indian names.

[=e], as in m e = i in mach i ne.

e, as in m e t.

[.e], as in h e r.

[=i], as in p i ne, or as ei in Ger. m ei n.

i, as in p i n, also used for the short sound corresponding to [=e], as in French and Italian words.

eu , a long sound as in Fr. j eû ne = Ger. long ö , as in S ö hne, G ö the (Goethe).

eu, corresponding sound short or medium, as in Fr. p eu = Ger. ö short.

[=o], as in n o te, m oa n.

o, as in n o t, s o ft that is, short or medium.

ö, as in m o ve, tw o .

[=u] as in t u be.

u, as in t u b: similar to [.e] and also to a.

[u:], as in b u ll.

ü, as in Sc. ab u ne = Fr. û as in d û , Ger. ü long as in gr ü n, B ü hne.

[.u], the corresponding short or medium sound, as in Fr. b u t, Ger. M ü ller.

oi, as in oi l.

ou, as in p ou nd; or as au in Ger. H au s.

CONSONANTS

Of the consonants , B, D, F, H, J, K, L, M, N, NG, P, SH, T, V, Z, always have their common English sounds, when used to transliterate foreign words. The letter C is not used by itself in re writing for pronunciation, S or K being used instead. The only consonantal symbols, therefore, that require explanation are the following:

ch is always as in ri ch .

d , nearly as th in th is = Sp. d in Ma d ri d , &c.

g is always hard, as in g o.

h represents the guttural in Scotch lo ch , Ger. na ch , also other similar gutturals.

[n.], Fr. nasal n as in bo n .

r represents both English r , and r in foreign words, which is generally much more strongly trilled.

s, always as in s o.

th, as th in th in.

th , as th in th is.

w always consonantal, as in w e.

x = ks, which are used instead.

y always consonantal, as in y ea (Fr. ligne would be re written l[=e]ny).

zh, as s in plea s ure = Fr. j .

AMIEL´, Henri Frédéric, French Swiss philosophical writer and poet, born at Geneva, 1821, died there 1881. Educated at Geneva, he resided a considerable time abroad, especially in Germany, and was much influenced by German thought and science. On his return he first held the chair of æsthetics, and then that of philosophy. He published several volumes of poetry as well as other works, but he is best known by his Journal Intime , published after his death, and translated into English (1885), with a critical study by Mrs... Continue reading book >>




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