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The New Heavens   By: (1868-1938)

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First Page:

[Illustration: Fig. 1. The Constellation of Orion (Hubble).

Photographed with a small camera lens of 1 inch aperture and 5 inches focal length. The three bright stars in the centre of the picture form the belt of Orion. Just below, in the sword handle, is an irregular white patch about one eighth of an inch in diameter. This is a small scale image of the great nebula in Orion, shown on a larger scale in Fig. 2.]

THE NEW HEAVENS

BY

GEORGE ELLERY HALE

DIRECTOR OF THE MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1922

TO MY WIFE

PREFACE

Fourteen years ago, in a book entitled "The Study of Stellar Evolution" (University of Chicago Press, 1908), I attempted to give in untechnical language an account of some modern methods of astrophysical research. This book is now out of print, and the rapid progress of science has left it completely out of date. As I have found no opportunity to prepare a new edition, or to write another book of similar purpose, I have adopted the simpler expedient of contributing occasional articles on recent developments to Scribner's Magazine , three of which are included in the present volume.

I am chiefly indebted, for the illustrations, to the Mount Wilson Observatory and the present and former members of its staff whose names appear in the captions. Special thanks are due to Mr. Ferdinand Ellerman, who made all of the photographs of the observatory buildings and instruments, and prepared all material for reproduction. The cut of the original Cavendish apparatus is copied from the Philosophical Transactions for 1798 with the kind permission of the Royal Society, and I am also indebted to the Royal Society and to Professor Fowler and Father Cortie for the privilege of reproducing from the Proceedings two illustrations of their spectroscopic results.

G. E. H.

January, 1922.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I. THE NEW HEAVENS II. GIANT STARS III. COSMIC CRUCIBLES

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. 1. The Constellation of Orion (Hubble) 2. The Great Nebula in Orion (Pease) 3. Model by Ellerman of summit of Mount Wilson, showing the observatory buildings among the trees and bushes 4. The 100 inch Hooker telescope 5. Erecting the polar axis of the 100 inch telescope 6. Lowest section of tube of 100 inch telescope, ready to leave Pasadena for Mount Wilson 7. Section of a steel girder for dome covering the 100 inch telescope, on its way up Mount Wilson 8. Erecting the steel building and revolving dome that cover the Hooker telescope 9. Building and revolving dome, 100 feet in diameter, covering the 100 inch Hooker telescope 10. One hundred inch mirror, just silvered, rising out of the silvering room in pier before attachment to lower end of telescope tube. (Seen above) 11. The driving clock and worm gear that cause the 100 inch Hooker telescope to follow the stars 12. Large irregular nebula and star cluster in Sagittarius (Duncan) 13. Faint spiral nebula in the constellation of the Hunting Dogs (Pease) 14. Spiral nebula in Andromeda, seen edge on (Ritchey) 15. Photograph of the moon made on September 15, 1919, with the 100 inch Hooker telescope (Pease) 16. Photograph of the moon made on September 15, 1919, with the 100 inch Hooker telescope (Pease) 17. Hubble's Variable Nebula. One of the few nebulæ known to vary in brightness and form 18. Ring Nebula in Lyra, photographed with the 60 inch (Ritchey) and 100 inch (Duncan) telescopes 19. Gaseous prominence at the sun's limb, 140,000 miles high (Ellerman) 20. The sun, 865,000 miles in diameter, from a direct photograph showing many sun spots (Whitney) 21. Great sun spot group, August 8, 1917 (Whitney) 22. Photograph of the hydrogen atmosphere of the sun (Ellerman) 23. Diagram showing outline of the 100 inch Hooker telescope, and path of the two pencils of light from a star when under observation with the 20 foot Michelson interferometer 24... Continue reading book >>




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