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The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism   By: (1868-1947)

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

Some short Greek renderings in the main text were printed as page footnotes. To avoid confusion with the links to the scholarly notes, these have been moved to parentheses next to the English renderings.

The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism

By

Franz Cumont

With an Introductory Essay by Grant Showerman

Authorized Translation

Chicago The Open Court Publishing Company

London Agents Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.

1911

COPYRIGHT BY THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 1911

TO MY TEACHER AND FRIEND

CHARLES MICHEL

{iii}

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION. The Significance of Franz Cumont's Work, By Grant Showerman ... v

PREFACE ... xv

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ... xxv

I. ROME AND THE ORIENT ... 1

Superiority of the Orient, 1. Its Influence on Political Institutions, 3. Its Influence on Civil Law, 5. Its Influence on Science, 6. Its Influence on Literature and Art, 7. Its Influence on Industry, 9. SOURCES: Destruction of Pagan Rituals, 11. Mythographers, 12. Historians, 13. Satirists, 13. Philosophers, 14. Christian Polemicists, 15. Archeological Documents, 16.

II. WHY THE ORIENTAL RELIGIONS SPREAD ... 20

Difference in the Religions of the Orient and the Occident, 20. Spread of Oriental Religions, 22. Economic Influences, 23. Theory of Degeneration, 25. Conversions are of Individuals, 27. Appeal of the Oriental Religions to the Senses, 28. Appeal to the Intelligence, 31. Appeal to the Conscience, 35. Inadequacy of the Roman Religion, 35. Skepticism, 37. Imperial Power, 38. The Purification of Souls, 39. Hope of Immortality, 42. Conclusion, 43.

III. ASIA MINOR ... 46

Arrival of Cybele at Rome, 46. Her Religion in Asia Minor, 47. Religion at Rome under the Republic, 51. Adoption of the Goddess Ma Bellona, 53. Politics of Claudius, 55. Spring Festival, 56. Spread of the Phrygian Religion in the Provinces, 57. Causes of Its Success, 58. Its Official Recognition, 60. ARRIVAL OF OTHER CULTS: Mèn, 61. Judaism, 63. Sabazius, 64. Anahita, 65. The Taurobolium, 66. Philosophy, 70. Christianity, 70. Conclusion, 71.

IV. EGYPT ... 73

Foundation of Serapis Worship, 73. The Egyptian Religion Hellenized, 75. Diffusion in Greece, 79. Adoption at Rome, 80. Persecutions, 82. Adoption Under Caligula, 84. Its History, 85. Its Transformation, 86. Uncertainty in Egyptian Theology, 87. Insufficiency of Its Ethics, 90. Power of Its Ritual, 93. Daily Liturgy, 95. Festivals, 97. Doctrine of Immortality, 99. The Refrigerium , 101.

{iv} V. SYRIA ... 103

The Syrian Goddess, 103. Importation of New Gods by Syrian Slaves, 105. Syrian Merchants, 107. Syrian Soldiers, 112. Heliogabalus and Aurelian, 114. Value of Semitic Paganism, 115. Animal Worship, 116. Baals, 118. Human Sacrifice, 119. Transformation of the Sacerdotal Religion, 120. Purity, 121. Influence of Babylon, 122. Eschatology, 125. THEOLOGY: God is Supreme, 127. God is Omnipotent, 129. God is Eternal and Universal, 130. Semitic Syncretism, 131. Solar Henotheism, 133.

VI. PERSIA ... 135

Persia and Europe, 135. Influence of the Achemenides, 136. Influence of Mazdaism, 138. Conquests of Rome, 139. Influence of the Sassanides, 140. Origin of the Mysteries of Mithra, 142. Persians in Asia Minor, 144. The Mazdaism of Anatolia, 146. Its Diffusion in the Occident, 149. Its Qualities, 150. Dualism, 151. The Ethics of Mithraism, 155. The Future Life, 158. Conclusion, 159.

VII. ASTROLOGY AND MAGIC ... 162

Prestige of Astrology, 162. Its Introduction in the Occident, 163. Astrology Under the Empire, 164. Polemics Powerless Against Astrology, 166. Astrology a Scientific Religion, 169. The Primitive Idea of Sympathy, 171. Divinity of the Stars, 172... Continue reading book >>




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