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The Panama Canal A history and description of the enterprise   By:

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THE PANAMA CANAL

[Illustration: Clinedinst Washington, D.C. COL. GEORGE W. GOETHALS, U.S.A., Chairman and Chief Engineer Isthmian Canal Commission.]

THE PANAMA CANAL

A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTERPRISE

BY

J. SAXON MILLS, M.A.

BARRISTER AT LAW

WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

THOMAS NELSON AND SONS

LONDON, EDINBURGH, DUBLIN, MANCHESTER, LEEDS PARIS, LEIPZIG, MELBOURNE, AND NEW YORK

PREFACE.

The literature on the subject of the Panama Canal is rather dispersed. A full and entertaining history of the project will be found in Mr. W. F. Johnson's "Four Centuries of the Panama Canal" (Cassell and Co., 1907), a work to which I am greatly indebted. Dr. Vaughan Cornish has given the results of much research and several visits to the canal in "The Panama Canal and its Makers" (T. Fisher Unwin, 1909), and in several lectures, especially one before the Royal Colonial Institute, June 11, 1912. An inexhaustible mine of information will be found in Mr. Emory R. Johnson's Official Report on Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls (Washington, 1912). The Report on the Trade and Commerce of the Republic of Panama for the year 1911, by Mr. H. O. Chalkley, Acting British Consul at Colon, contains useful information. A valuable series of articles on the Panama Canal appeared in The Times of 1912. The National Geographic Magazine of February 1911 contains an authoritative article by Colonel G. W. Goethals, Chief Engineer of the Canal, and the number for February 1912 an interesting appreciation by Mr. W. J. Showalter. In Scribner's Magazine for February 1913, Mr. J. B. Bishop, Secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission, writes a very useful paper on the Sanitation of the Isthmus. In his recent work on South America Mr. Bryce devotes one of his delightful chapters to the Isthmus of Panama. A chapter on the Panama Canal will be found in Mr. A. E. Aspinall's "The British West Indies," and many references in Mr. C. G. Murray's "A United West Indies." I must thank Mr. G. E. Lewin, the Librarian of the Royal Colonial Institute, for his unfailing help and courtesy.

BUSHEY, 1913.

CONTENTS.

PREFACE 5

DATE HISTORY OF THE CANAL 11

I. THE SECRET OF THE STRAIT 15

II. CANAL PROJECTS 23

III. THE CLAYTON BULWER TREATY AND THE SUEZ CANAL 42

IV. THE FRENCH FAILURE 52

V. THE HAY PAUNCEFOTE TREATY 64

VI. THE UNITED STATES AND COLOMBIA 77

VII. A MINIATURE REVOLUTION 88

VIII. THE BATTLE OF THE LEVELS 112

IX. MAN AND THE GNAT 129

X. LIFE AT THE ISTHMUS 153

XI. THE PROBLEM OF CONSTRUCTION 172

XII. THE CULEBRA CUT 186

XIII. THE LOCKS 195

XIV. THE COMPLETED CANAL 207

XV. PANAMA AND THE ISTHMUS 226

XVI. THE NEW OCEAN HIGHWAYS 242

XVII. THE CANAL AND THE AMERICAS 265

XVIII. THE CANAL AND THE BRITISH EMPIRE 284

XIX. THE NEW PACIFIC 316

APPENDIX I. HAY PAUNCEFOTE TREATY 323

APPENDIX II. PANAMA DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 327

APPENDIX III. HAY BUNAU VARILLA TREATY CLAUSES 1 9 AND 23 332

APPENDIX IV. PROCLAMATION AS TO CANAL TOLL RATES 343

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Col. George W. Goethals, U.S.A. Frontispiece Chairman and Chief Engineer Isthmian Canal Commission... Continue reading book >>




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