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Peat and its Uses as Fertilizer and Fuel   By: (1830-1909)

Book cover

First Page:

PEAT AND ITS USES,

AS

FERTILIZER AND FUEL.

BY

SAMUEL W. JOHNSON, A. M.,

PROFESSOR OF ANALYTICAL AND AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY, YALE COLLEGE.

FULLY ILLUSTRATED.

NEW YORK: ORANGE JUDD & COMPANY. 245 BROADWAY.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by

ORANGE JUDD & CO.,

At the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.

LOVEJOY & SON, ELECTROTYPERS AND STEREOTYPERS 15 Vandewater street N. Y.

TO MY FATHER,

MY EARLIEST AND BEST

INSTRUCTOR IN RURAL AFFAIRS,

THIS VOLUME

IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED.

S. W. J.

CONTENTS.

Introduction vii

PART I. ORIGIN, VARIETIES, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF PEAT.

PAGE 1. What is Peat? 9 2. Conditions of its Formation 9 3. Different Kinds of Peat 14 Swamp Muck 17 Salt Mud 18 4. Chemical Characters and Composition of Peat 18 a. Organic or combustible part 19 Ulmic and Humic Acids 19 Ulmin and Humin Crenic and Apocrenic Acids 20 Ulmates and Humates 21 Crenates and Apocrenates 22 Gein and Geic Acid Elementary Composition of Peat 23 Ultimate Composition of the Constituents of Peat 25 b. Mineral Part Ashes 25 5. Chemical Changes that occur in the Formation of Peat 26

PART II. ON THE AGRICULTURAL USES OF PEAT AND SWAMP MUCK.

1. Characters that adapt Peat for Agricultural Use 28 A. Physical or Amending Characters 28 I. Absorbent Power for Water, as Liquid and Vapor 31 II. " " for Ammonia 32 III. Influence in Disintegrating the Soil 34 IV. Influence on the Temperature of Soils 37 B. Fertilizing Characters 38 I. Fertilizing Effects of the Organic Matters, excluding Nitrogen 38 1. Organic Matters as Direct Food to Plants 38 2. Organic Matters as Indirect Food to Plants 40 3. Nitrogen, including Ammonia and Nitric Acid 42 II. Fertilizing Effects of the Ashes of Peat 46 III. Peculiarities in the Decay of Peat 50 IV. Comparison of Peat with Stable Manure 51 2. Characters of Peat that are detrimental, or that need correction 54 I. Possible Bad Effects on Heavy Soils 54 II. Noxious Ingredients 55 a. Vitriol Peats 55 b. Acidity c. Resinous Matters 57 3. Preparation of Peat for Agricultural Use 57 a. Excavation 57 b. Exposure, or Seasoning 59 c. Composting 62 Compost with Stable Manure 63 " " Night Soil 68 " " Guano 69 " " Fish and other Animal Matters 70 " " Potash lye & Soda ash; Wood ashes, Shell marl, Lime 72 " " Salt and Lime Mixture 73 " " Carbonate of Lime, Mortar, etc 75 4... Continue reading book >>




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