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Pitman's Commercial Spanish Grammar (2nd ed.)   By:

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=============================================================== Transcriber's note: The details on the edition of the book that was used to produce this eText, have been moved to the end of this document for the benefit of those who might be interested. ===============================================================

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR

BY

C. A. TOLEDANO

1917

PREFACE

With the best intention of justifying Messrs. PITMAN'S confidence in entrusting me with the compilation of a Spanish Grammar to form part of the series of "Commercial Grammars," I set to work to produce a book which, while avoiding pedantry and the agglomeration of superfluous and intricate rules which puzzle the student, should equally avoid falling into the extreme of coarseness which debases the subject under study, or the scrappiness resulting in gaps that perplex and discourage him. I have tried to be brief and clear in the rules given.

The vocabulary has been chosen carefully, avoiding the artificiality of too much commercial technology, but keeping constantly in view the object of the Series, viz., to produce grammars specially suitable for students preparing for a commercial career.

Whether I have succeeded in my efforts it is for the public to judge. I can only say that, after more than twenty five years' teaching of Spanish in all its stages, privately, at the Manchester University and in the large classes of our public Institutions, I have tried my best to give the fruits of my experience to any interested young people who may be eager to learn a language beautiful, noble, and most useful.

I do not claim to have reached perfection. I only trust the book, such as it presents itself, will be of real help to the student.

C.A. TOLEDANO.

MANCHESTER, 1911.

COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR

ALPHABET.

A ( a ) G ( ge ) M ( eme ) Rr ( erre ) B ( be ) H ( hache ) N ( ene ) S ( ese ) C ( ce ) I ( i ) Ñ ( eñe ) T ( te ) Ch ( che ) J ( jota ) O ( o ) U ( u ) D ( de ) K ( ka ) P ( pe ) V ( ve ) E ( e ) L ( ele ) Q ( cu ) X ( equis ) F ( efe ) Ll ( elle ) R ( ere ) Y ( y griega or ye ) Z ( zeta )

K ( ka ) and W ( doble ve ) are only found in foreign words used in Spanish.

PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS.

a as English a in f a ther e [1] " a " f a te[2] i " i " magaz i ne o [1] " o " n o te[2] u " u " r u le

These five sounds never vary, except that they are a little longer when they are stressed and shorter when they are not, as Yo amo (I love),[3] Amigo (friend), El cielo (heaven), Celeste (heavenly), Un recibo (a receipt), Interés (interest), Yo como (I eat), Contar (to count), Un buque (a ship), Una butaca (an armchair).

Y is considered a vowel in the conjunction y (and), and at the end of a word, as Rey (king), Hoy (to day).

[Footnote 1: E and o are sounded a little more open when they form a diphthong with i and when they precede r followed by a consonant or r or l final, as Fernando (Ferdinand), Un tercio (a third), El tercer año (the third year), Porfiar (to insist), Amor (love), Español (Spanish).]

[Footnote 2: The a and o of "fate" and "note" are not pure vowel sounds . In English the a is distinctly pronounced a ee and o is pronounced o oo.

In Spanish the first part only of the two sounds is permissible.]

[Footnote 3: The examples given with their English equivalents should be learnt.

DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS.

There are no Diphthongs or Triphthongs in the English sense of two or three vowels meeting in one syllable and blending into a different sound, as "pause," "plough."

Every vowel is pronounced separately and each with its alphabetical sound, only the two or three vowels occurring in one syllable are pronounced rapidly, as Pausa (pause), Reino (kingdom), Cuenta (account), Buey (ox)... Continue reading book >>




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