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A Problem in Greek Ethics Being an inquiry into the phenomenon of sexual inversion   By: (1840-1893)

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First Page:

A

PROBLEM

IN

GREEK ETHICS

BEING

AN INQUIRY INTO THE PHENOMENON OF

SEXUAL INVERSION

ADDRESSED ESPECIALLY TO MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS AND JURISTS

BY

JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS

PRIVATELY PRINTED

FOR

THE AREOPAGITIGA SOCIETY

LONDON

1908

Privately Printed in Holland for the Society.

PREFACE.

The following treatise on Greek Love was written in the year 1873, when my mind was occupied with my Studies of Greek Poets . I printed ten copies of it privately in 1883. It was only when I read the Terminal Essay appended by Sir Richard Burton to his translation of the Arabian Nights in 1886, that I became aware of M. H. E. Meier's article on Pæderastie (Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopædie , Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1837). My treatise, therefore, is a wholly independent production. This makes Meier's agreement (in Section 7 of his article) with the theory I have set forth in Section X. regarding the North Hellenic origin of Greek Love, and its Dorian character, the more remarkable. That two students, working separately upon the same mass of material, should have arrived at similar conclusions upon this point strongly confirms the probability of the hypothesis.

J. A. SYMONDS.

CONTENTS.

I. INTRODUCTION: Method of treating the subject.

II. Homer had no knowledge of paiderastia Achilles Treatment of Homer by the later Greeks.

III. The Romance of Achilles and Patroclus.

IV. The heroic ideal of masculine love.

V. Vulgar paiderastia How introduced into Hellas Crete Laius The myth of Ganymede.

VI. Discrimination of two loves, heroic and vulgar. The mixed sort is the paiderastia defined as Greek love in this essay.

VII. The intensity of paiderastia as an emotion, and its quality.

VIII. Myths of paiderastia.

IX. Semi legendary tales of love Harmodius and Aristogeiton.

X. Dorian Customs Sparta and Crete Conditions of Dorian life Moral quality of Dorian love Its final degeneracy Speculations on the early Dorian Ethos Boeotians' customs The sacred band Alexander the Great Customs of Elis and Megara Hybris Ionia.

XI. Paiderastia in poetry of the lyric age. Theognis and Kurnus Solon Ibycus, the male Sappho Anacreon and Smerdies Drinking songs Pindar and Theoxenos Pindar's lofty conception of adolescent beauty.

XII. Paiderastia upon the Attic stage Myrmidones of Æschylus Achilles' lovers , and Niobe of Sophocles The Chrysippus of Euripides Stories about Sophocles Illustrious Greek paiderasts.

XIII. Recapitulation of points Quotation from the speech of Pausanias on love in Plato's Symposium Observations on this speech. Position of women at Athens Attic notion of marriage as a duty The institution of Paidagogoi Life of a Greek boy Aristophanes' Clouds Lucian's Amores The Palæstra The Lysis The Charmides Autolicus in Xenophon's Symposium Speech of Critobulus on beauty and love Importance of gymnasia in relation to paiderastia Statues of Erôs Cicero's opinions Laws concerning the gymnasia Graffiti on walls Love poems and panegyrics Presents to boys Shops and mauvais lieux Paiderastic Hetaireia Brothels Phædon and Agathocles. Street brawls about boys Lysias in Simonem .

XIV. Distinctions drawn by Attic law and custom Chrestoi Pornoi Presents and money Atimia of freemen who had sold their bodies The definition of Misthosis Eromenos , Hetairekos , Peporneumenos , distinguished Æschines against Timarchus General Conclusion as to Attic feeling about honourable paiderastia.

XV. Platonic doctrine on Greek love The asceticism of the Laws Socrates His position defined by Maximus Tyrius His science of erotics The theory of the Phædrus : erotic Mania The mysticism of the Symposium : love of beauty Points of contact between Platonic paiderastia and chivalrous love: Mania and Joie: Dante's Vita Nuova Platonist and Petrarchist Gibbon on the "thin device" of the Athenian philosophers Testimony of Lucian, Plutarch, Cicero... Continue reading book >>




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