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Problems in Periclean Buildings   By: (1879-1965)

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PROBLEMS IN PERICLEAN BUILDINGS

PRINCETON MONOGRAPHS IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY II

PROBLEMS IN PERICLEAN BUILDINGS

BY

G. W. ELDERKIN, PH.D.

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, PRECEPTOR IN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS PRINCETON LONDON: HENRY FROWDE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1912

Copyright, 1912, by Princeton University Press for the United States of America.

Printed by Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., U. S. A.

CONTENTS

I. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE IRREGULARITY OF THE PROPYLAEA 1

II. AN INTERPRETATION OF THE CARYATID PORCH 13

III. THE ERECHTHEUM AS BUILT 19

IV. THE ERECHTHEUM AS PLANNED 49

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

1. EAST WINDOW OF THE PINAKOTHEKE.

2. THE PINAKOTHEKE AS SEEN FROM THE BASE OF THE BASTION OF THE TEMPLE OF WINGLESS VICTORY.

3. THE PINAKOTHEKE AS SEEN FROM A POINT NEAR THE AXIS OF THE CENTRAL PORTAL.

4. PLAN OF PROPYLAEA WITH ZIGZAG ROAD OF ASCENT.

5. SCENE ON AN ARCHAIC AMPHORA.

6. NORTH END OF WESTERN INTERIOR FOUNDATION OF THE ERECHTHEUM. VIEW FROM THE EAST.

7. THE GROUND PLAN OF THE ERECHTHEUM AS BUILT.

8. THE NORTH SIDE OF THE DOOR IN THE WEST WALL.

9. NORTH WALL AT PLACE OF CONTACT WITH THE EASTERN CROSS WALL.

10. THE CUTTING IN THE MARBLE BLOCK AT THE N. E. CORNER OF THE EASTERN CELLA BELOW THE SUPPOSED FLOOR LEVEL.

11. THE INTERIOR N. W. CORNER OF THE TEMPLE.

12. THE ORIGINAL PLAN OF THE ERECHTHEU M.

I

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE IRREGULARITY OF THE PROPYLAEA

The irregular position of the door and the windows of the north west wing of the Propylaea has long been remarked, though no explanations of the phenomenon have been offered. Bohn, Die Propylaeen der Akropolis zu Athen , p. 23, says of the south wall of this wing: "Die Wand welche die Halle von dem eigentlichen Gemach trennt, ist von einer Tür und zwei Fenstern durchbrochen. Erstere liegt jedoch nicht in der Mitte, die letzteren wiederum unsymmetrisch zu ihr. Irgend einen Grund, irgend eine axiale Beziehung zu den Säulen vermochte ich in dieser abweichenden Anordnung nicht zu finden." The east wall of the Erechtheum, on the other hand ( A. J. A. , 1906, Pl. 8), was pierced by a central door and two windows equidistant from it. That such symmetrical arrangement should obtain in the Erechtheum and not in the closely contemporary Propylaea very justly occasions surprise. It is the purpose of this study to attempt to explain the irregularity in the latter.

The first fact to be observed with regard to the façade of the Pinakotheke is concisely stated by Bohn ( op. cit. , p. 23): "Die Stellung der Säulen bestimmt sich dadurch dass die Tangente an die Westseite der östlichsten genau in die entsprechende Flucht der Hexastylstützen fällt." The position of the anta at the eastern end of the lesser colonnade is also fixed by the requirement that it stand directly beneath a triglyph. This anta in turn determined the position of the eastern window, for the west face of the anta and the window are equidistant from the east wall of the Pinakotheke (Fig. 1). The coincidence can hardly be accidental. If the position of the eastern window was thus determined by considerations of appearance from a well defined exterior point of view, it is probable that the position of the other two openings in the wall was similarly determined by a point or points somewhere in the line of approach to the building rather than by any consideration for objects within the Pinakotheke. Such a point is readily found at the base of the Nike bastion, from which both windows and door are simultaneously visible between the columns (Fig. 2). The western window appears at the extreme left of the intercolumniation; the eastern, at the extreme right. If the observer advance from this point toward the Pinakotheke, the windows remain constantly in sight but appear to move more and more toward the middle of the intercolumniations (Fig. 3).

Along no other line outside the portico can the three openings be viewed thus simultaneously... Continue reading book >>




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