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Researches on Cellulose 1895-1900   By: (1855-)

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First Page:

RESEARCHES ON CELLULOSE

1895 1900

BY

CROSS & BEVAN

(C. F. CROSS AND E. J. BEVAN)

SECOND EDITION

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA

1907

All rights reserved

Transcriber's note:

For Text: A word surrounded by a cedilla such as ~this~ signifies that the word is bolded in the text. A word surrounded by underscores like this signifies the word is italics in the text. The italic and bold markup for single italized letters (such as variables in equations) and "foreign" abbreviations are deleted for easier reading.

For numbers and equations: Parentheses have been added to clarify fractions. Underscores before bracketed numbers in equations denote a subscript. Superscripts are designated with a caret and brackets, e.g. 11.1^{3} is 11.1 to the third power. Greek letters in equations are translated to their English version.

The sections in the Table of Contents are not used in the actual text. They have been added for clarity.

Minor typos have been corrected and footnotes moved to the end of the sections

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION

This edition is a reprint of the first in response to a continuous demand for the book. The matter, consisting as it does largely of records, does not call for any revision, and, as a contribution to the development of theory, any particular interest which it has is associated with the date at which it was written.

The volume which has since appeared is the sequel, and aims at an exposition of the subject "to date".

PREFACE

This volume, which is intended as a supplement to the work which we published in 1895, gives a brief account of researches which have been subsequently published, as well as of certain of our own investigations, the results of which are now for the first time recorded.

We have not attempted to give the subject matter the form of a connected record. The contributions to the study of 'Cellulose' which are noticed are spread over a large area, are mostly 'sectional' in their aim, and the only cohesion which we can give them is that of classifying them according to the plan of our original work. Their subject matter is reproduced in the form of a précis , as much condensed as possible; of the more important papers the original title is given. In all cases we have endeavoured to reproduce the Author's main conclusions, and in most cases without comment or criticism.

Specialists will note that the basis of investigation is still in a great measure empirical; and of this the most obvious criterion is the confusion attaching to the use of the very word 'Cellulose.' This is due to various causes, one of which is the curious specialisation of the term in Germany as the equivalent of 'wood cellulose.' The restriction of this general or group term has had an influence even in scientific circles. Another influence preventing the recognition of the obvious and, as we think, inevitable basis of classification of the 'celluloses' is the empiricism of the methods of agricultural chemistry, which as regards cellulose are so far chiefly concerned with its negative characteristics and the analytical determination of the indigestible residue of fodder plants. Physiologists, again, have their own views and methods in dealing with cellulose, and have hitherto had but little regard to the work of the chemist in differentiating and classifying the celluloses on a systematic basis. There are many sides to the subject, and it is only by a sustained effort towards centralisation that the general recognition of a systematic basis can be secured.

We may, we hope usefully, direct attention to the conspicuous neglect of the subject in this country. To the matter of the present volume, excluding our own investigations, there are but two contributions from English laboratories. We invite the younger generation of students of chemistry to measure the probability of finding a working career in connection with the cellulose industries... Continue reading book >>




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