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Respiration Calorimeters for Studying the Respiratory Exchange and Energy Transformations of Man   By: (1878-)

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Respiration Calorimeters for Studying the Respiratory Exchange and Energy Transformations of Man

BY

FRANCIS G. BENEDICT and THORNE M. CARPENTER

[Illustration]

WASHINGTON, D. C. PUBLISHED BY THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 1910

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATION NO. 123

The Lord Baltimore Press BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A.

PREFACE.

The immediate development and construction of suitable apparatus for studying the complicated processes of metabolism in man was obviously the first task in equipping the Nutrition Laboratory. As several series of experiments have already been made with these respiration calorimeters, it is deemed advisable to publish the description of the apparatus as used at present. New features in the apparatus are, however, frequently introduced as opportunity to increase accuracy or facilitate manipulation is noted.

We wish here to express our sense of obligation to the following associates: Mr. W. E. Collins, mechanician of the Nutrition Laboratory, constructed the structural steel framework and contributed many mechanical features to the apparatus as a whole; Mr. J. A. Riche, formerly associated with the researches in nutrition in the chemical laboratory of Wesleyan University, added his previous experience in constructing and installing the more delicate of the heating and cooling devices. Others who have aided in the painstaking construction, testing, and experimenting with the apparatus are Messrs. W. H. Leslie, L. E. Emmes, F. L. Dorn, C. F. Clark, F. A. Renshaw, H. A. Stevens, Jr., Miss H. Sherman, and Miss A. Johnson.

The numerous drawings were made by Mr. E. H. Metcalf, of our staff.

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, August 10, 1909.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

Introduction 1

Calorimeter laboratory 3 General plan of calorimeter laboratory 3 Heating and ventilating 7

The calorimeter 10 Fundamental principles of the apparatus 10 The calorimeter chamber 11 General construction 14 Prevention of radiation 17 The thermo electric elements 19 Interior of the calorimeter 20 Heat absorbing circuit 22 Thermometers 26 Mercurial thermometers 26 Electric resistance thermometers 28 Air thermometers 28 Wall thermometers 29 Electrical rectal thermometer 29 Electric resistance thermometers for the water current 29 Observer's table 31 Connections to thermal junction systems 33 Rheostat for heating 34 Wheatstone bridges 34 Galvanometer 35 Resistance for heating coils 35 Temperature recorder 36 Fundamental principle of the apparatus 38 The galvanometer 39 The creeper 40 The clock 42 Installation of the apparatus 42 Temperature control... Continue reading book >>




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