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Rulers of India: Akbar   By: (1825-1898)

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First Page:

RULERS OF INDIA

EDITED BY SIR WILLIAM WILSON HUNTER, K.C.S.I., C.I.E. M.A. (OXFORD): LL.D. (CAMBRIDGE)

AKBAR

London HENRY FROWDE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE AMEN CORNER, E.C.

[ All rights reserved ]

[Illustration: MAP OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE]

RULERS OF INDIA

AKBAR

BY COLONEL G. B. MALLESON, C.S.I.

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS: 1890

CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGES I. THE ARGUMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 11

II. THE FAMILY AND EARLY DAYS OF BÁBAR . . . . . . . . . . 12 16

III. BÁBAR CONQUERS KÁBUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 25

IV. BÁBAR'S INVASIONS OF INDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 34

V. THE POSITION OF BÁBAR IN HINDUSTÁN . . . . . . . . . . 35 49

VI. HUMÁYÚN AND THE EARLY DAYS OF AKBAR . . . . . . . . . 50 59

VII. HUMÁYÚN INVADES INDIA. HIS DEATH . . . . . . . . . . . 60 64

VIII. AKBAR'S FIGHT FOR HIS FATHER'S THRONE . . . . . . . . 65 71

IX. GENERAL CONDITION OF INDIA IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 80

X. THE TUTELAGE UNDER BAIRÁM KHÁN . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 90

XI. CHRONICLE OF THE REIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 145

XII. THE PRINCIPLES AND INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION OF AKBAR . 146 200

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 204

NOTE

The orthography of proper names follows the system adopted by the Indian Government for the Imperial Gazetteer of India . That system, while adhering to the popular spelling of very well known places, such as Punjab, Lucknow, etc., employs in all other cases the vowels with the following uniform sounds:

a , as in wom a n: á , as in l a nd: i , as in pol i ce: í , as in intr i gue: o , as in c o ld: u , as in b u ll: ú , as in s u re.

{5}

THE EMPEROR AKBAR

CHAPTER I THE ARGUMENT

I crave the indulgence of the reader whilst I explain as briefly as possible the plan upon which I have written this short life of the great sovereign who firmly established the Mughal dynasty in India.[1]

[Footnote 1: For the purposes of this sketch I have referred to the following authorities: Memoirs of Bábar , written by himself, and translated by Leyden and Erskine; Erskine's Bábar and Humáyún ; The Ain í Akbarí (Blochmann's translation); The History of India, as told by its own Historians , edited from the posthumous papers of Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B., by Professor Dowson; Dow's Ferishta ; Elphinstone's History of India ; Tod's Annals of Rajast'han , and various other works.]

The original conception of such an empire was not Akbar's own. His grandfather, Bábar, had conquered a great portion of India, but during the five years which elapsed between the conquest and his death, Bábar enjoyed but few opportunities of donning the robe of the administrator. By the rivals whom he had overthrown and by the children of the soil, Bábar was alike regarded as a conqueror, and as nothing more. A man of remarkable ability, who had spent all his life in arms, he was really an adventurer, though a brilliant adventurer, who, soaring above his contemporaries in genius, taught in the rough school of adversity, had beheld from his eyrie at Kábul the distracted condition {6} of fertile Hindustán, and had dashed down upon her plains with a force that was irresistible. Such was Bábar, a man greatly in advance of his age, generous, affectionate, lofty in his views, yet, in his connection with Hindustán, but little more than a conqueror. He had no time to think of any other system of administration than the system with which he had been familiar all his life, and which had been the system introduced by his Afghán predecessors into India, the system of governing by means of large camps, each commanded by a general devoted to himself, and each occupying a central position in a province... Continue reading book >>




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