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The Sewerage of Sea Coast Towns   By: (1873-1952)

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First Page:

THE SEWERAGE OF SEA COAST TOWNS

BY

HENRY C. ADAMS

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I. THE FORMATION OF TIDES AND CURRENTS

II. OBSERVATIONS OF THE RISE AND FALL OF TIDES

III. CURRENT OBSERVATIONS

IV. SELECTION OF SITE FOR OUTFALL SEWER.

V. VOLUME OF SEWAGE

VI. GAUGING FLOW IN SEWERS

VII. RAINFALL

VIII. STORM WATER IN SEWERS

IX. WIND AND WINDMILLS

X. THE DESIGN OF SEA OUTFALLS

XI ACTION OF SEA WATER ON CEMENT

XII. DIVING

XIII. THE DISCHARGE OF SEA OUTFALL SEWERS

XIV. TRIGONOMETRICAL SURVEYING

XV. HYDROGRAPHICAL SURVEYING

PREFACE.

These notes are internal primarily for those engineers who, having a general knowledge of sewerage, are called upon to prepare a scheme for a sea coast town, or are desirous of being able to meet such a call when made. Although many details of the subject have been dealt with separately in other volumes, the writer has a very vivid recollection of the difficulties he experienced in collecting the knowledge he required when he was first called on to prepare such a scheme, particularly with regard to taking and recording current and tidal observations, and it is in the hope that it might be helpful to others in a similar difficulty to have all the information then obtained, and that subsequently gained on other schemes, brought together within a small compass that this book has written.

60, Queen Victoria St, London, E.C.

CHAPTER I.

THE FORMATION OF TIDES AND CURRENTS.

It has often been stated that no two well designed sewerage schemes are alike, and although this truism is usually applied to inland towns, it applies with far greater force to schemes for coastal towns and towns situated on the banks of our large rivers where the sewage is discharged into tidal waters. The essence of good designing is that every detail shall be carefully thought out with a view to meeting the special conditions of the case to the best advantage, and at the least possible expense, so that the maximum efficiency is combined with the minimum cost. It will therefore be desirable to consider the main conditions governing the design of schemes for sea coast towns before describing a few typical cases of sea outfalls. Starting with the postulate that it is essential for the sewage to be effectually and permanently disposed of when it is discharged into tidal waters, we find that this result is largely dependent on the nature of the currents, which in their turn depend upon the rise and fall of the tide, caused chiefly by the attraction of the moon, but also to a less extent by the attraction of the sun. The subject of sewage disposal in tidal waters, therefore, divides itself naturally into two parts: first, the consideration of the tides and currents; and, secondly, the design of the works.

The tidal attraction is primarily due to the natural effect of gravity, whereby the attraction between two bodies is in direct proportion to the product of their respective masses and in inverse proportion to the square of their distance apart; but as the tide producing effect of the sun and moon is a differential attraction, and not a direct one, their relative effect is inversely as the cube of their distances. The mass of the sun is about 324,000 times as great as that of the earth, and it is about 93 millions of miles away, while the mass of the moon is about 1 80th of that of the earth, but it averages only 240,000 miles away, varying between 220,000 miles when it is said to be in perigee, and 260,000 when in apogee. The resultant effect of each of these bodies is a strong "pull" of the earth towards them, that of the moon being in excess of that of the sun as 1 is to 0.445, because, although its mass is much less than that of the sun, it is considerably nearer to the earth.

About one third of the surface of the globe is occupied by land, and the remaining two thirds by water. The latter, being a mobile substance, is affected by this pull, which results in a banking up of the water in the form of the crest of a tidal wave... Continue reading book >>




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