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The Social Direction of Evolution An Outline of the Science of Eugenics   By:

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THE SOCIAL DIRECTION OF HUMAN EVOLUTION

THE SOCIAL DIRECTION OF HUMAN EVOLUTION

AN OUTLINE OF THE SCIENCE OF EUGENICS

BY

WILLIAM E. KELLICOTT PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY, GOUCHER COLLEGE

[Illustration]

NEW YORK AND LONDON D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 1919

COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

Printed in the United States of America

PREFACE

This small volume is based upon three lectures on Eugenics delivered at Oberlin College in April, 1910. In preparing them for publication many extensions and a few additions have been made in order to present the subject more adequately and to include some very recent results of eugenic investigation.

Few subjects have come into deserved prominence more rapidly than has Eugenics. Biologists, social workers, thoughtful students and observers of human life everywhere, have felt the growing necessity for some kind of action leading to what are now recognized as eugenic ends. Hitherto the lack of guiding principles has left us in the dark as to where to take hold and what methods to pursue. To day, however, progress in the human phases of biological science clearly gives us clews regarding modes of attack upon many of the fundamental problems of human life and social improvement and progress, and suggests concrete methods of work.

The present essay does not represent an original contribution to the subject of Eugenics. It is not a complete statement of the facts and foundations of Eugenics in any particular. It is rather an attempt to state briefly and suggestively, in simple, matter of fact terms the present status of this science. While Eugenics is a social topic in practice, in its fundamentals, in its theory, it is biological. It is therefore necessary that the subject be approached primarily from the biological point of view and with some familiarity with biological methods and results. The control of human evolution physical, mental, moral is a serious subject of supremest importance and gravest consequents. It must be considered without excitement thoughtfully, not emotionally.

It is hardly necessary to add that no one can speak of the subject of Eugenics without feeling the immensity of his debt to Sir Francis Galton and to Professor Karl Pearson. From the writings of these pioneers I have drawn heavily in this essay. The recent summary of the Whethams, and Davenport's valuable essay on Eugenics have also served as the sources of quotation.

W. E. K. Baltimore, Md., November, 1910.

CONTENTS

PAGE I. THE SOURCES AND AIMS OF THE SCIENCE OF EUGENICS 3 II. THE BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EUGENICS 49 III. HUMAN HEREDITY AND THE EUGENIC PROGRAM 133

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE 1. Increase of population in the United States and the principal countries of Europe from 1800 to 1900 26 2. Relative and absolute numbers of prisoners in the United States from 1850 to 1904 30 3. Recorded measurements of the stature of 1052 mothers 57 4. Model to illustrate the law of probability or "chance" 59 5. Plinth to illustrate the difference between variability (fluctuation) and variation (mutation) 64 6. Curves illustrating the relation between the pure line and the species or other large group 67 7... Continue reading book >>




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