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A Source Book of Australian History   By:

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A SOURCE BOOK OF AUSTRALIAN HISTORY

COMPILED BY

GWENDOLEN H. SWINBURNE, M.A.

DIP. ED., MELB. UNIV.

LONDON

G. BELL AND SONS, LTD.

1919

CHISWICK PRESS: CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO.

TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.

INTRODUCTION

I submit this volume to the public in the hope that it may increase the amount of interest usually shown in Australian History by deepening the general knowledge of the subject, and illustrating it by those vivid details which arrest the attention and enable the student to visualize past events.

The number of events described in a Source Book must necessarily be smaller than that in histories of another type; but the aim is to place the student in contact with the evidence of history in order that he may become his own historian by drawing his own deductions from the contemporary records. The greatest historian can find no materials ulterior to such as are here presented, for there is nothing ulterior to them but the deeds themselves. They are the records written by the men who gave their life and health to lay the foundation of Australia's greatness by Phillip, weakening under the racking cares of the infant state; by Sturt in the scorching desert, as the last duty of an exhausting day. They are aglow with the heat of action; they are inspiring in their quiet modesty and strength.

In order to give greater continuity to the volume, short introductions have been placed at the head of each selection. It has been impossible to quote in full all the documents of which use has been made, but fuller information may be obtained by reference to the "source" mentioned at the head of each selection. The editor or author of the source and its date of publication are shown in order to facilitate further research.

The Source Book has been compiled with attention to the requirements of schools, and it is hoped that teachers in Australia will avail themselves of the opportunity to introduce the study of history from contemporary documents, and thus in this respect bring Australia into line with the other countries where source books are already familiar. The section on discovery and exploration may with advantage be used in the study of geography.

My thanks are due to the proprietors of the "Times" for permission to quote certain pages from "The Times History of the War in South Africa," and "The Times History of the War and Encyclopaedia," and also for the "Dispatch from a Special Correspondent at the Dardanelles," printed in the "Times," 7 May 1915.

It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge my indebtedness to Professor Scott, of Melbourne University (at whose suggestion the work was undertaken), for his interest and advice; and to Arthur Wadsworth, Esq., Chief Librarian for the Parliament of the Commonwealth, for his courteous assistance.

GWENDOLEN H. SWINBURNE.

HAWTHORN, MELBOURNE.

CONTENTS

PART I

DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION

DISCOVERY OF TASMANIA

DESCRIPTION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

THE FIRST VISIT TO THE EASTERN COAST

BASS STRAIT

THE INVESTIGATOR

ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS

AUSTRALIA FELIX (VICTORIA)

THE INTERIOR OF THE CONTINENT. I

EXPLORATION OF THE EASTERN RIVER SYSTEM

THE INTERIOR. II

ACROSS THE CONTINENT. SOUTH TO NORTH. I

ACROSS THE CONTINENT. SOUTH TO NORTH. II

FROM WEST TO EAST. I. ALONG THE BIGHT

FROM WEST TO EAST. II. THE INTERIOR

PART II

GENERAL HISTORY

THE FIRST SETTLEMENT

EARLY DIFFICULTIES

PHILLIP'S RESIGNATION

NEW SOUTH WALES CORPS

THE IRISH POLITICAL PRISONERS

THE BLIGH MUTINY

THE BEGINNING OF THE WOOL INDUSTRY

EMANCIPIST CONTROVERSY

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

WAKEFIELD'S SCHEME OF COLONIZATION

FOUNDATION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA

FOUNDATION OF VICTORIA

TRANSPORTATION

INDEPENDENCE OF VICTORIA

GOLD

EFFECTS OF THE GOLD DISCOVERY

THE GOLD MINES

VICTORIA IN 1854

THE BUSHRANGERS

ANTI TRANSPORTATION MOVEMENT

THE LAND QUESTION

THE LAND QUESTION IN NEW SOUTH WALES

QUEENSLAND

PAYMENT OF MEMBERS CRISIS

NEW GUINEA

THE NATIONAL AUSTRALASIAN CONVENTION, 1891

THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

THE BOER WAR

THE GREAT WAR

LANDING ON GALLIPOLI

WHAT ANZAC MEANS

[Illustration: MAP OF AUSTRALIA]

A SOURCE BOOK OF AUSTRALIAN HISTORY

PART I

DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION

DISCOVERY OF TASMANIA

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