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Steam, Steel and Electricity   By:

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What Steam is. Steam in Nature. The Engine in its earlier forms. Gradual explosion. The Hero engine. The Temple door machine. Ideas of the Middle Ages. Beginnings of the modern engine. Branca's engine. Savery's engine. The Papin engine using cylinder and piston. Watt's improvements upon the Newcomen idea. The crank movement. The first use of steam expansively. The "Governor." First engine by an American Inventor. Its effect upon progress in the United States. Simplicity and cheapness of the modern engine. Actual construction of the modern engine. Valves, piston, etc., with diagrams.


The various "Ages" in civilization. Ancient knowledge of the metals. The invention and use of Bronze. What Steel is. The "Lost Arts." Metallurgy and chemistry. Oriental Steel. Modern definition of Steel. Invention of Cast Steel. First iron ore discoveries in America. First American Iron works. Early methods without steam. First American casting. Effect of iron industry upon independence. Water power. The trip hammer. The steam hammer of Nasmyth. Machine tools and their effects. First rolling mill. Product of the iron industry in 1840 50. The modern nail, and how it came. Effect of iron upon architecture. The "Sky Scraper." Gas as fuel in iron manufactures. The Steel of the present. The invention of Kelley. The Bessemer process. The "Converter." Present product of Steel. The Steel mill.


The oldest and the youngest of the sciences. Origin of the name. Ancient ideas of Electricity. Later experiments. Crude notions and wrong conclusions. First Electric Machine. Frictional Electricity. The Leyden Jar. Extreme ideas and Fakerism. Franklin, his new ideas and their reception. Franklin's Kite. The Man Franklin. Experiments after Franklin, leading to our present modern uses. Galvani and his discovery. Volta, and the first "Battery." How a battery acts. The laws of Electricity, and how they were discovered. Induction, and its discoverer. The line at which modern Electricity begins. Magnetism and Electricity. The Electro Magnet. The Molecular theory. Faraday, and his Law of Magnetic Force.


CHAPTER I. The Four great qualities of Electricity which make its modern uses possible. The universal wire. Conductors and non conductors. Electricity an exception in the ordinary Laws of Nature. A dual nature: "Positive" and "Negative." All modern uses come under the law of Induction. Some of the laws of this induction. Magnets and Magnetism. Relationship between the two. Magnetic "poles." Practical explanation of the action of induction. The Induction Coil. Dynamic and Static Electricity. The Electric Telegraph. First attempts. Morse, and his beginnings. The first Telegraph Line. Vail, and the invention of the dot and dash alphabet. The old instruments and the new. The final simplicity of the telegraph.

CHAPTER II. The Ocean Cable. Differences between land lines and cables. The story of the first cable. Field and his final success. The Telephone. Early attempts. Description of Bell's invention. The Telautograph. Early attempts and the idea upon which they were based. Description of Gray's invention. How a Telautograph may be made mechanically.

CHAPTER III. The Electric Light. Causes of heat and light in the conductor of a current. The first Electric Light. The Arc Light, and how constructed. The Incandescent. The Dynamo. Date of the invention. Successive steps. Faraday the discoverer of its principle... Continue reading book >>

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