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Theory of the Earth, Volume 1 (of 4)   By: (1726-1797)

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First Page:

THEORY OF THE EARTH, VOLUME I

With Proofs and Illustrations, in Four Parts

By

JAMES HUTTON, M.D. & F.R.S.E.

1795.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

THEORY OF THE EARTH; with the Examination of different Opinions on that Subject.

CHAP. I.

THEORY OF THE EARTH; or an Investigation of the Laws observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe.

SECT. I. Prospect of the Subject to be treated of.

SECT. II. An Investigation of the Natural Operations employed in consolidating the Strata of the Globe.

SECT. III. Investigation of the Natural Operations employed in the Production of Land above the Surface of the Sea.

SECT. IV. System of Decay and Renovation observed in the Earth.

CHAP. II.

An Examination of Mr KIRWAN's Objections to the Igneous Origin of Stony Substances.

CHAP. III.

Of Physical Systems, and Geological Theories, in general.

CHAP. IV.

The Supposition of Primitive Mountains refuted.

CHAP. V.

Concerning that which may be termed the Primary Part of the Present Earth.

CHAP. VI.

The Theory of interchanging Sea and Land, illustrated by an Investigation of the Primary and Secondary Strata 421.

SECT. I. A distinct view of the Primary and Secondary Strata.

SECT. II. The Theory confirmed from Observations made on purpose to elucidate the Subject.

CHAP. VII.

Opinions examined with regard to Petrifaction, or Mineral Concretion.

CHAP. VIII.

The Nature of Mineral Coal, and the Formation of Bituminous Strata, investigated.

SECT. I. Purpose of this Inquiry.

SECT. II. Natural History of Coal Strata, and Theory of this Geological Operation.

SECT. III. The Mineralogical Operations of the Earth illustrated from the Theory of Fossil Coal.

PART I.

THEORY OF THE EARTH;

WITH THE

EXAMINATION

OF

DIFFERENT OPINIONS ON THAT SUBJECT.

IN EIGHT CHAPTERS.

CHAPTER I.

THEORY of the EARTH; or an Investigation of the Laws observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration, of Land upon the Globe.

SECTION I.

Prospect of the Subject to be treated of.

When we trace the parts of which this terrestrial system is composed, and when we view the general connection of those several parts, the whole presents a machine of a peculiar construction by which it is adapted to a certain end. We perceive a fabric, erected in wisdom, to obtain a purpose worthy of the power that is apparent in the production of it.

We know little of the earth's internal parts, or of the materials which compose it at any considerable depth below the surface. But upon the surface of this globe, the more inert matter is replenished with plants, and with animal and intellectual beings.

Where so many living creatures are to ply their respective powers, in pursuing the end for which they were intended, we are not to look for nature in a quiescent state; matter itself must be in motion, and the scenes of life a continued or repeated series of agitations and events.

This globe of the earth is a habitable world; and on its fitness for this purpose, our sense of wisdom in its formation must depend. To judge of this point, we must keep in view, not only the end, but the means also by which that end is obtained. These are, the form of the whole, the materials of which it is composed, and the several powers which concur, counteract, or balance one another, in procuring the general result.

The form and constitution of the mass are not more evidently calculated for the purpose of this earth as a habitable world, than are the various substances of which that complicated body is composed. Soft and hard parts variously combine to form a medium consistence, adapted to the use of plants and animals; wet and dry are properly mixed for nutrition, or the support of those growing bodies; and hot and cold produce a temperature or climate no less required than a soil: Insomuch, that there is not any particular, respecting either the qualities of the materials, or the construction of the machine, more obvious to our perception, than are the presence and efficacy of design and intelligence in the power that conducts the work... Continue reading book >>




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