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The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication — Volume 2   By: (1809-1882)

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THE VARIATION OF

ANIMALS AND PLANTS

UNDER DOMESTICATION

BY

CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S., ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES

VOLUME II.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER 2.XIII. INHERITANCE continued REVERSION OR ATAVISM.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF REVERSION IN PURE OR UNCROSSED BREEDS, AS IN PIGEONS, FOWLS, HORNLESS CATTLE AND SHEEP, IN CULTIVATED PLANTS REVERSION IN FERAL ANIMALS AND PLANTS REVERSION IN CROSSED VARIETIES AND SPECIES REVERSION THROUGH BUD PROPAGATION, AND BY SEGMENTS IN THE SAME FLOWER OR FRUIT IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY IN THE SAME ANIMAL THE ACT OF CROSSING A DIRECT CAUSE OF REVERSION, VARIOUS CASES OF, WITH INSTINCTS OTHER PROXIMATE CAUSES OF REVERSION LATENT CHARACTERS SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS UNEQUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TWO SIDES OF THE BODY APPEARANCE WITH ADVANCING AGE OF CHARACTERS DERIVED FROM A CROSS THE GERM, WITH ALL ITS LATENT CHARACTERS, A WONDERFUL OBJECT MONSTROSITIES PELORIC FLOWERS DUE IN SOME CASES TO REVERSION.

CHAPTER 2.XIV. INHERITANCE continued. FIXEDNESS OF CHARACTER PREPOTENCY SEXUAL LIMITATION CORRESPONDENCE OF AGE.

FIXEDNESS OF CHARACTER APPARENTLY NOT DUE TO ANTIQUITY OF INHERITANCE PREPOTENCY OF TRANSMISSION IN INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME FAMILY, IN CROSSED BREEDS AND SPECIES; OFTEN STRONGER IN ONE SEX THAN THE OTHER; SOMETIMES DUE TO THE SAME CHARACTER BEING PRESENT AND VISIBLE IN ONE BREED AND LATENT IN THE OTHER INHERITANCE AS LIMITED BY SEX NEWLY ACQUIRED CHARACTERS IN OUR DOMESTICATED ANIMALS OFTEN TRANSMITTED BY ONE SEX ALONE, SOMETIMES LOST BY ONE SEX ALONE INHERITANCE AT CORRESPONDING PERIODS OF LIFE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PRINCIPLE WITH RESPECT TO EMBRYOLOGY; AS EXHIBITED IN DOMESTICATED ANIMALS: AS EXHIBITED IN THE APPEARANCE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF INHERITED DISEASES; SOMETIMES SUPERVENING EARLIER IN THE CHILD THAN IN THE PARENT SUMMARY OF THE THREE PRECEDING CHAPTERS.

CHAPTER 2.XV. ON CROSSING.

FREE INTERCROSSING OBLITERATES THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ALLIED BREEDS WHEN THE NUMBERS OF TWO COMMINGLING BREEDS ARE UNEQUAL, ONE ABSORBS THE OTHER THE RATE OF ABSORPTION DETERMINED BY PREPOTENCY OF TRANSMISSION, BY THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE, AND BY NATURAL SELECTION ALL ORGANIC BEINGS OCCASIONALLY INTERCROSS; APPARENT EXCEPTIONS ON CERTAIN CHARACTERS INCAPABLE OF FUSION; CHIEFLY OR EXCLUSIVELY THOSE WHICH HAVE SUDDENLY APPEARED IN THE INDIVIDUAL ON THE MODIFICATION OF OLD RACES, AND THE FORMATION OF NEW RACES BY CROSSING SOME CROSSED RACES HAVE BRED TRUE FROM THEIR FIRST PRODUCTION ON THE CROSSING OF DISTINCT SPECIES IN RELATION TO THE FORMATION OF DOMESTIC RACES.

CHAPTER 2.XVI. CAUSES WHICH INTERFERE WITH THE FREE CROSSING OF VARIETIES INFLUENCE OF DOMESTICATION ON FERTILITY.

DIFFICULTIES IN JUDGING OF THE FERTILITY OF VARIETIES WHEN CROSSED VARIOUS CAUSES WHICH KEEP VARIETIES DISTINCT, AS THE PERIOD OF BREEDING AND SEXUAL PREFERENCE VARIETIES OF WHEAT SAID TO BE STERILE WHEN CROSSED VARIETIES OF MAIZE, VERBASCUM, HOLLYHOCK, GOURDS, MELONS, AND TOBACCO, RENDERED IN SOME DEGREE MUTUALLY STERILE DOMESTICATION ELIMINATES THE TENDENCY TO STERILITY NATURAL TO SPECIES WHEN CROSSED ON THE INCREASED FERTILITY OF UNCROSSED ANIMALS AND PLANTS FROM DOMESTICATION AND CULTIVATION.

CHAPTER 2.XVII. ON THE GOOD EFFECTS OF CROSSING, AND ON THE EVIL EFFECTS OF CLOSE INTERBREEDING.

DEFINITION OF CLOSE INTERBREEDING AUGMENTATION OF MORBID TENDENCIES GENERAL EVIDENCE OF THE GOOD EFFECTS DERIVED FROM CROSSING, AND ON THE EVIL EFFECTS OF CLOSE INTERBREEDING CATTLE, CLOSELY INTERBRED; HALF WILD CATTLE LONG KEPT IN THE SAME PARKS SHEEP FALLOW DEER DOGS, RABBITS, PIGS MAN, ORIGIN OF HIS ABHORRENCE OF INCESTUOUS MARRIAGES FOWLS PIGEONS HIVE BEES PLANTS, GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE BENEFITS DERIVED FROM CROSSING MELONS, FRUIT TREES, PEAS, CABBAGES, WHEAT, AND FOREST TREES ON THE INCREASED SIZE OF HYBRID PLANTS, NOT EXCLUSIVELY DUE TO THEIR STERILITY ON CERTAIN PLANTS WHICH EITHER NORMALLY OR ABNORMALLY ARE SELF IMPOTENT, BUT ARE FERTILE, BOTH ON THE MALE AND FEMALE SIDE, WHEN CROSSED WITH DISTINCT INDIVIDUALS EITHER OF THE SAME OR ANOTHER SPECIES CONCLUSION... Continue reading book >>


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